Skip to main content

Full text of "Analysis of the Personality of Adolph Hitler"

See other formats

O. S. S. Confidential 

""^ "\ 

Copy No. 3 of 3 



(i>4.nalysis of 
The Personality of Adolph Hitler 

With Predictions of His Future Behavior 


Suggestions for Dealing With Him 

Now and After 

Germany's Surrender 


Harvard Psychological Clinic 


OCTOBER, 1943 




With predictions of his futiire behavior 


suggestions for dealing with him 


now and after Germany's surrender 


if ' 

mi " 

Henry A. Mtirray, M» D^ 
IlP.rvard Psychological Clinic 

'UZ ^'■^. 


^^^^iMi'"^.-'"- , 




The aiid of this memorandum is (1) to present an 
analysis of Adolf Hitler»a personality with an 
hypothetical formulation of the manner of its 
development; (2) on the basis of this, to make a 
few predictions as to his conduct when confronted 
by the mounting successes of the Allies; and (3) 
to offer some suggestions as to how the TJ. S» 
Government might now influence his mental condition 
and behavior (assuming it sees fit to do so), and 
might deal with him, if taken into custody, after 
Germany's surrender. 

The proper interpretation of Hitler's person- 
ality is important as a step in und9rstanding_the 

E3Icholo«2L-2l±'llJ.I2lSi^ ^^^ - ^^^^^ *^^ 
typical Nazi exhibits a strain that has, for a 
long time, been prevalent among Germans - as a 
step 1ft tmderstanding the psychology of the German 
people. Hitler's uaprs code nted appeal, the eleva^ 
tlon of this man to the status of a deni-god, can 
be explained only on the hypothesis tl.>iit he and his 
ideology have almost exactly met the ne^da, longings, 
and sentiments of the majority of Germans. 

-v-„V.t5^.S.-.. J.r 

- 2 - 

The attainment of a oleat In^reaslon of the 
psychology of the German people la essential If « 
after stirrendei*, they are to be converted Into a 
peace-loving nation that la willing to take Its 
proper place in a world society* 

Sources of Information for this Analjals; - 
As la well known, there are no thoroughly re* 
liable sources of information about Hitler's early 
life and what la known about him since 1918 is in 
many respects insufficient or contradictory. 

This analysis haa been based, for the moat 
part, on the following material: 

1, Data supplied by the Office of 
Strategic services 

2. Hitler's MEIN KAMPP, New York, 
Reynal & Hitchcock, 1959 

3. Hitler's MY NEW ORDER, New York, 
Reynal & Hitchcock, 1941 

4, Heiden, K., HITLER, A BIOGRAPHY, 
London, 1936 

5, Rauschnlng, H., VOICE OP DESTRUCTION, 
New York 

6. 'Baynes, H, G., GERMANY POSSESSED, 

London, 1941 

It la generally agreed that MEIN KAMPP is not to be 
relied on as a factual document, but as the translators 
say in the introduction to the American edition, 
this work "is probably the best written evidence 
of the character, the mind, and the spirit of Adolf 
Hitler." An analysis of the metaphors used in 

- 3 - 

MEIN KAMI^.has prpved . reieardlng in the attempt to 

discover the underlying forces of his personality. 

MY NEW ORDER, edited by Roussy de Sales, has also 

been utilized extensively. 

A paper published by W.H.D. Vernon, HITLER THE 

MAN - NOTES FOR, A CASE HISTORY {Jour, of Abn. & Soc. 
Psychol., 1942, 37, 295-308), was i»ritten under my 
general auper^/ision and contains most of the ideas 
of professor G, W. Allport and myself on this topic 
3o far as they were crystallised in the fall of 1941. 
This artlcie by Vernon is included in toto as an 
introduction, thereby relieving ma of the necessity 
of rests-ting (in the detailed analysis that follows) 
all th^ -fiotmaottly' known facts. 

BfP^r^i: v. •• ■■•.^^^^^■v•>•'«.?fv^.«Jii•.^T•.'v<•■.^■*■.^ ■.■■■ 















Sii3tmnary of the Entire Hemorandian. 

by W. H. D. Vernon (the beat available 
short outline of Hitler's personality), 

^Svamnary, Part A) Detailed Analysis of 
Bitler'a Personality {written especially 
for paychologlste, psychiatrists). 

(S\Jinmary, Part B) Predictions of Hitler's 
Behavior in the Coining Future • 

(Summary, part C) Suggestions for the 
Treatment of Hitler, Kom» and After 
Gesnnany's Sturrender, 

($uinmary> Part D) Suggestions for the 
. Treatment of CJeriiJany* 

•-%s;4S'A'-^'v' ;r 


st<3,?j;oN 1 


6ond6ft6M E$yi9% Qf ' tl^^ l^tji^^' MemorahdjM 


A. , ^lef Analyala of Hltler»a Personality. 

B. Pradlctlona of Hitler* a Behavior, 

C. Suggestions for the Treatment of Hitler. 

D. Sixggeatlons for ;the i?reatiiaent of the. 
; G8rn»n People. 

giitwflttea by Henry A. Murray, M.D. 

Harvard Paychological Cllnlo, 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Committer for National Morale, 
New York. 

A. Brief Anal ysis of Hitler's Personality 
I ♦ Dynamical Pattern. Counteractive Type . - 
There 1» little disagreement among professional, or 
even ampng awateui*, psychologists that Hitler's 
personality Is an example of the counteractive type, 
a type that le marked by Intense and stubborn efforts 
(1) to overcome early diaabilltlea, weaknesses and 
humiliations (wounds to self-asteen), and sometimes 
also by efforts (11) to revenge ln*ur: o«? and In- 
eults to pride. ThJ-s la achieved by m?; ana of an 

. .- 2 - J 

■- ■• ■ • ■ . •■•••■ "^rv+ri 

Idealego. Reaction Pormattofa which Involvea (1) the 
repression and denial of the Inferior portions of 
the self, and (11) strivings to become (or to Imagine 
one has becosiej the exact opposite, represented by 
an idealegOt or Image of a superior self successfully 
accomplishing the once- Impossible feats and thereby 
c\irlng the wounds of pride and winning general 
respect> prestige, fame. 

This Is a very common formula , normal (within 
limits) and widely admired In Western cultures, but 
In Hitler »s case all the constituent forces of the 
pattern are c ompulsively extreme , and based on a, 
w eak neurotlo Structural foundation * The cM.i9f 
trends are these: (1) Counteracti ve Keed for 
Dgmi^anc_e^g_Su^il^ (2)' Counteracti ve Aggres- 
s ion. -Re vehg o; (5) Repre ssion of Conscience. Com- 
pliance. Love; (4) f>roje Ctlon of Crltiol zable 
E lements of the Se lf. 

1, Counterac tive Heed for dominance, 
Superiority.- The developmental formula for this 
is as follows J (1) Intolerable feelings of in- 
feriorlty (partly because of yielding to the will 
of a harsh and unjaet person), lep.o^nR tr^ (ii) 
contempt of o-jm inferior traits (wepkr:68n, timidity. 

^^P^ -■.^■•i; s:^'^^^^^^ • 

•' ''^-C' -y ^ :>^;^>3'i^^rV^^^V^$^^ 

^,_ -;,♦-;« .._^. ,- 

- 3 - 

submiasivenesa) and the fixed determination to repress 
them in oneaelf and to condemn them in others, 
5iccompanied by (iii) admiration and envy of power 
in others and a vision of self as ultimately sxiperior 
(idealego) leading to (iv) repeated efforts to become 
superior (counteraction out of wounded pride), en- 
couraged by moments of extreme self- confidence in 
which one believes oneself the equal of one's vision. 

This, as we have said, is' a very common form 
of development, but in Hitler the trend is so intense 
and *;he c:)ranonly balancing forces (affection, 
con/3cienca,. self-critic5.a:n, humor) are so weak that 
we a3pe .lir^tified in speaking in speaking of megalo- 
icRnis (delusions of omnipotence), despite the fact 
that the sian has succeeded in getting a large pro- 
portion ci: tfca Germr.i pscple to believe that he is 
sv.perlor: (i) tliat he b^a bean divinely appointed 
to lead them to power and glory, and (ii) that he 
is neve r wron g and henoe must be^ fcllowed with blind 
obdlenoe, come what aayo 

Hitler's inferiorifcy feelings, his 
■basic self-contempt are shown by his choosing as 
e riteria of supe riority (traits of 1 do... lego) attribute* 
and capacities that are the very oppoaits of what he 

•-• rttsf- f**"*' 

., S s-"^- ' ";-- »■' ' '-" 

^^•^m^ii • * 


- 4 • 

ia himself or one© was. This may be Illustrated 
by his fervent eulogy of (6) brute strength ; (b> 
purity of blood ; and (c) fertility , 

' 1. (a) Admiration of Brute Strength, 
Contempt of Weaknesa .- Hitler has always worshipped 
physical force, military conquest, and ruthlesa 
domihation. He has respected, envied, and emulated 
the techniques of power , even when manifested by ft 
hated enemy. Prom first to last he has expressed 
contempt o f ' weakness , indecision, lack of energy, 
fear of consc5.ence; 

and ye t - . 

mjbler has man y Weaknesses . . There is a 
lR::?ge feminine component in his consftitution. As 
a child he was frail and sickli, e motionall y dependent 
on his mother, fie never^dld any ma nual work, never 
engaged in athletics, w«is turned down as forever 
tt hfUi tot conscription in the Austrian Army. Afraid 
of his father, his behavior was out wardly submissive , 
and later he was ahnoyihgly gubgervierit to his superior 
officers, Poiir ygars in the Army, he never rose above 
the Jpank of corpbr%l. At the end he broke doirtt witli 
a war neurosis, hys terical blindhe G<< . Even lately, 
in all his glCSry, he sviffera frequent emdtibrial 

v4« 1^^'^^v^/V-''^- ■*■■* •• •"■^■' • '■'^''"^ - • '■■'••' •••-.•• '" \ ...••.. •./ :.•■..••• v.:::- .v.- :;.'••:•• -vv -. _ • ■;.• >^^:^;;:^^:^;^?:,■.:rl:•.• 




- 5^ ^ 

/ collapsqa in which hg yells and weeps. He has night- 
mares from a baa consoiehce ; and he has long spells 
when energy,' confidence and the power of decision 
abandon hJjii. Sexually he is a full-fledged masoohist/ 

1» (b) Admiration of Pure Noble German 
Blood. Contempt of Jewish. Slav and other Blood y - 
Hitler has always ext piled the superior qualities 
of p\ire< unmlxedji and uncorrupted German blood* He 
admires the aristocraoy.r Oonoxirrently he has never 
ceased expressing his contempt of the lower classes 
and ^s aversion to admixtures of the blood of other 
races, of Jewish blood especially; 
ahd.yet - 

Hitler * a oxm Oriplha are ' Not Noble or 
Beyond Reproactw , Hitler comes from illiterate 
peasant stoolc derived from a mixture of races, no 
pure Germans among them. His father was Illegitimate, 
was married three timqa, and is said to have been 
conspicuous for sexual promiscuity* Hitler's mother 
wd^ a domestic servant* It is said that Hitler's 
f aether's f*ther was a Jew, and it is certain that 
hid Kodfajbher was a Jew ; and that one of his sisters- 
managed a restaurant" for Jewish students in Vienna 
' and another was, for a time, the mistress of a Jew* 

" \ .••'•■.ii:-.-- 

^: -JTir.-':''---.-: 

^»> ' 

- 6 - 

,'-! \ 

' Hitler ♦s appearance,' when he wore a long heard during 
hie outceiat Vienna dasrs, waa said to he very Jewish, 
Of these facts ho Is evidently ashamed* Unlike . 
napbi^on^ he has 'rejected. iElll his relations* 

As a partial explanation of his complex about . 
impurity of blood it nmy be said that as a boy of 
twelve/ Hitler was caught engaging in seme sexual, 
experiment with a little girl; and later he seems 
to have developed a s yphllophobla , with a diffuse 
1 fear 'Of contamination af the blood through contact 

with it woman, it is almost certain that this irrational 
dre$d was partly due to the association In his mind 
of sexuality and excretion. He thought of aexual 
relations as something exceedingly filt hy* 

1, (c) Advocacy of fertility . -^ Fertility^ 
the family as the bi»eeding ground of warriors, multi*- 
plication of the German race - these have been cardinal 
points lii Hitler's ideology; 

and ' yet - 

Hitler himself la Impotent ,- He is unmarried 
and his old acquaintances say that he la incapable 
of consTimmatlng the sexual act in a normal fashion'. 
This infirmity we must recognize as an instigation 
to exhorbltant cravings for superiority, Unable to 


4?-. . -• 7 - 

-•■ij&L'"' ' • 

' demonstrate 8»ale power before a woman, he is impelled 
to oompehsate by exhibiting wsurpaaaed power before 

men in the world at large> , 

1. (d> Achievement of Power thrcmgh Oratory. ^ 
■ < ■ •' • " ■ ' ■* 

Hitler coiald neitheS? change his origins nor decree . 

his potency, and unlike. Mussolini he has never tried 
to develop himself physically, but he became for a 
while the most powerful individual in the world, pri- 
marily by the use of m a8S~iht6xicatihp; words ♦ Aristotle 
has said that the mStaphor is the roost potent' force 
on earthy and Hitler, master of crude metaphor, has 
confirmed the this generation. By seducing 
^he masses with his eloquence , and getting them to 
accept him as their divinely appointed guide^ he com- 
pelled the smaller circles of industrialists, politic > 
oians and military leaders to fall into line also. 
Hitler speaking before a large audience is a 
man possessed^ comparable to a primitive medicine 
man, or shaman.. He is the inoarnatioh of the crowd ^s 
unspoken needs and cravings ; and in this sense he has 
been created, and to a large extent invented, by the 
people of Germany. 

-a -^ 

. Hitler has 6onipaFed the masses to a woman who 
must be courted with the arts and skills known to 
passion oniy;,iMid It Is not unlikely that the emotional 
soiirce of his oi*glastlc speeches were childhood tantr 
by which he succesafdlly appealed to his ever-Indulgent 


1. (e) Significance of the Counteractive 
Pattern, - Counteraction Is essential to the develop- 
ment of strength, but In Hitler's case It has been 
extravagent and frantic* He has not ascended step 
by step, building the structure of his character 
solidly as he went; but Instead has roished forward 
with panting haste, pretentiously. As a result, 
there Is a fjyeat distance between Hitler at his best^ 
,and Hitler at hJs.WoJ'at ; which means -that when he is 
overcome at last by a greater force he will collapse 
suddenly and eo^letely * and as an utter wreck. 

2. Cototiteraetlve Aggression, Revenge . - That 
the will to powei? and the craving for superiority . 
can not account for the idiole of Hitler's psychology 
is evidenced by his iBtmeagura b le hatred , hatred ex- 
pressed in the absence of an adequate stimulus, an 
Incessant need to find some object on which to vent 
his pent-up wrath. This can be traced back with rela- 
tive certainty to experiences of insult, humiliation 



vr?^^m:<^^!-'\^^' 'T^r^''--^: ■:--rivr^^^^'^-^^:v^ 



- 9 ^ 

' V. 

■<^'r» -^ ; , 

iV 4.1' 

and wounded pride in childhood. The source of such 
insults, we have many reasons to believe, was Hitler's 
father, a coarse boastful man who ruled his wife 
(twenty- three years younger than himself ) and his 
children with tyrannical severity and injustice. 

2, (a) Explanation . - The hypothesis is 
advanced, supported by much evidence, that as a boy 
Hitler was severely shocked (as it were, blinded) 
by witnessing sexual intercourse between his parents, 
and his reaction to this trauma was to swear revenge, 
to dream of himself as reestablishing the lost glory 
of Ma mo^^bfi^ ^y overcoming and humiliating his 
father* The boy's relative weakness made this actido 
impossible, apd so the drive and passion of revenge 
was regressed and locked up within Mm undflr tension. 
Only much later when a somewhat similar stimulus 
occurred r the subjugation and humiliation of his 
motherlapd (Hitler <» term for Germany) in 1918 - 
. »aa this Qn erg ^ ftf^revenge released, after a short 
period of shpote and , hpterical blindness. 

This would expiflJi the fact that Hitler exhibited 
no ei^rgetic ambitious d rive of his own from the age 
of 13 years (when his, father, tM enemy, died) to the 
age of 29 years (when a new enemy, the conqueror • 



i . 10 - 

,;vte : 

of the motherland, appeared). It also helps to account 
for Hitler »s relentless devo>tlon to the rehabilitation 
of Qenaany , a fact which Is hard to explain in a man 
who IS so extremely egocentric in other relittions. 
In Mein Kampf Hitler repeatedly speaks of permany 
as ^ heloved woman, ' 

(Hot£> In this connection it may be said 
that the evidence is in favor of Hitler's hatrlng 
experienced the common Oediptia CoAplex (love of mother, 
hftte of father)^ but that in his case this pattern 
was repressed and submerged by another pattern: gro- 
f bund admiration-, envy and emulation of his father ' s 
inasculihe power and a contempt of! feis mottier's 
feminine sufahiisiveneag and, weakness * Thus both 

parents »ere amblvaleht t& him ; his father was 

hated and respected; his mother was loved and de« 
pre elated . Hitler's conspicuous actions have all 
been in imitation of his father, not his mother.) 
Whether this gent^iplJ hypothesis la correct 
or not. It la oartain iiyat. tttere la a vast reservoir 
of resentmerjt and revetige in Hitler' s make-up which 
accovints for hit : 6ult of feCTitalitjir and his mSnjr abta 
of inexcusable destructivenesa and 6rueltf# Hi It 
possessed by what amounta to a h6M:ciaal^'66M|flll8loli 

:■:■: Wi 

?o»ifr j^ y ,'/* /' ;-„^ 

,% . , ^ . ■♦*c^--^ 

V '--i^tt^f' 


- 11^ 

which has no vent in a •♦weak piping time of peace »♦ 
(Tinless he "became an outright criminal), and there- 
fore he. has constantly pushed events toward war, or 
s cape goa ting, 

g. fbl Si<^nif ioanee of Revenge > - As a 
result of the fact that resentment is the mainspring 
of Hitler «s career , it is forever impossible to 
hope for any mercy or humane treatment from him. 
His revengefulness can be jsatisfied only by the 
extermination of his feountless enemies. 

5, Repression of Conscience. Compliance. Love. . - 
Unlike Gpering and other associates. Hitler is no 
healthy amoral brute. He is a hive of sec ret neurotic 
compunctions and feminine sentimentalities whicfr haTro 
had to be stubbornly repressed ever since he embfft«i§# 
on his career of ruthless dominance and revenge 
{instigated by real or supposed insults). Every 
new act of unusual cruelty, such as the purge of 
1934, has been followed by a period of anxiety and 
depletion , agitated de .lection and nightmares , which 
can be interpreted only as the unconscio us operation 
of a had conscience . Hitler wants notfaittg so much 
fti Vo arrive at the state where he can commit": crimes 
without guilt feelings; but despite his boasts of 
having transcended Good and Evil this had not been 



c - 12 • 

possible. The suicidal trend in his personality- 

is eloquent testimony of a repressed self- condemning 


In conjunction with the repression of conscience 
and the advance of hat 6 there has been a repression 
of affection and sympathy, as if "his spirit seemed 
to chide such weakness as unworthy of its pride , " 
a reaction which sometimes occurs in childhood after 
an experience of unbearable disillusionment occasioned, 
by the felt treachery of a beloved person. One may 
find **a vigilance of grief that would compel the 
soul to hate for having loved too well." Hitler *s 
affiliativQ tendencies have alwayst been very weak ; 
he has never had any close personal friends; he l# 
entirely incapable of normal human relationships. 
This is due, in part, to the cessation in early life 
of sexual developments 

3. (a) Self- Vindicating Criminality * - 
Paradoxical as it may seem. Hitler's r epeated crimes 
are partly caused by' conscience and the n e cessity 
of appeasing it . For having once set out on a life 
of crime, the man can not turn back without reversing 
his entire grotind for pride and taking the humiliating 
path of self-abasement and atonement • The only method 


"-•%>yi>'.vi ^^ : - ^'y^ >. 

he'fetaa odT. eubduittg his motintlng uncDnscioua guilt 
la tus cOiftBiti .eaethoi? aoJb of aggression, and so to 
fjjpQ-^ ey ftS li wer^^f by the criterion of auccesa, that 
fais fit^^i^y Is favorpd l^y fortune and therefore .fngti- 
fled m4 J*iE^t> « Failure, is the only wrong, 

S# Cia) Significanoe of the Rgp ressJcn cf 
Conaciehes by Suocesaful -Criminality. - As soon aa 
the tlmi ceises when repeatea offensive actlona end 
in .failure.^ Eltler will 16ae faith .in biriself and 

lift Ma daatiny^ and h^coine the helpleag victim of h is 

■ * ' ' ' ^ 

t*eprea^9d cohgcte ncg^ with auicide or mental breakdown 

aa the most likely outcome. 

*• Projection of Crlticlzab X Q Slem ents ofjthe^ 
Self • - Hitler perceivea in other people the traita 
or tendenciea that are criticizable in himaelf . 
Thua, inatead of being devoxired by the vulture of 
hia own condeiiining conscience or of hia own diadain^ 
he can attack what he apperceivea as evil or con- 
temptible in the external world, arid so remain un- 
conacioua (moat of the time) of hi 3 own guilt or 
hia own inferiority. Thia mechani s m whereby a man 
aeea hia own wicked Impulaea or weakneaaea in othera^ 
la called projection ^ It ia bne way, the paranoid 
way ^ of maintaining; aelf- eateem . The mechaniam 


r/^y:y^/t>is^)^||^.^^'!:5i?^ •-' » ''*>','^y' ^l,y^^.- "':■*':« ^''f^:-'^ 

<'.'tfV <.; viv 



- 14 - 

oc«ttj?a «d^60iast€atXy In nitldx* thst it is possible 
t<5 g«* a irery, gftod id&« of thd i^epudiated portions 
of bli^ OUtt pej^soneiXitjf by not'lclng what he condonma 
in ethejpa * tl^efitchery*, tjing^f oot^ruption, war-mon.cep-» 

.;•:.• . ) • 

ipg, et6» $M8 ptchanissa would )b»ve had more 
JULsftatrpiMl eoijsequfinces f'or* bis sanity if he had 
flot ^iatid ae»0 govej^hance. cwep it by consciously 
adopting (aid -goed political stj?J5ttegy) the practice 
tt hXf^raitkg Jii$ opponents o 

S^ ' ^?Sll^i4-^3Bi?.^'^ HltXerleS dynamical pattern, 
as dlesci?l^ed| ooWeaporirlM clceely to that of paranoid 
insanity #, tfx€!eed he has *e7:hibitod.. at one time or» 
anothel?, all of , the cla3fliical s sTrpioins of pMrcn^d 
schig;dphf*enia : hypersensitivity^ panics of anxiety^ 
irrational jealousy^ delusions of persecution, de- 
lusions t!ff omnipotence, and mess iahs hip. 

H0ir Is it^ then, that Hitler has escaped con- 
finement as a dangerous psychopath? This interesting 
question will be considered later, 

5, Reactions to Opposition an d Frus trat:ion. - 
Opposition is the stimulus wliich startles Eitler 
into life, in the face of it his powers are gathered 
and augmented. When opposition becomes stronger 
resulting in severe frustration, his reaction has 

•: ^ :;^j -••,"■, >''^ •^, 

^ — :- ;a^^o^ 


of tQii 1>0tli as f Qilidtwa s (1 ) emotional outbursts 
taatinim ftf Jpftge d6d accusatoj^y indignation ending 
in tears fto4, self*plt5r;^ sttcceeded by (ii) periods 
of iMptJEL^ extidustion, melancholy and indecisive- 
fcess (fii^dOB^ganidd sometimes by hours of acute dejec-^ 
tlon ftiid disquieting nightmares) leading to recupera- 
tion; aod finally (iii) confident and resolut e de- 
^ ^slsi6n tQ;<|gUiQt^er&ttabk with great force and ruth- 
lessnessi f be entire cycle may' run its course in , 
24 hours |- off it maybe weeks before the aggressive 
decision of thisi third stage is reached. 

For years this pattern of reaction to frustra- 
tion hias m$t with success; each counterattack has 
brought Hitler nearer to his goal* Since the turn 
of fortune on the Russian front, however, the number 
of frustrations have, increased and Hitler's counter- 
attacks have failed, at times disastrously. There 
is no structure for defense in Hitler's personality: 
he can only strike when inflated with confidence, 
or a collapse when confidence abandons him * 

As time goes on, therefore, we can anticipate 
ah increase in the intensity, frequency and duration 
of Hitler's periods of collapse, and a decrease in 
the confidence and power of his retaliations. 

k"^5%r. .,; .^ • 


i-Ci -i?!^?!?:;--^: >; 

L 16 - 

A point to be remernbei^ed' about Hitler Is that 
he started his career at scratch, a nonentity with 
nothing to .lose ^ and he .^elected a fanatical path 
for himself Krhjch requires ^^9 fitn ending - complete 
pucfceas (omnipotence) 6r utter failure (death) \ 
No compromise Is possible. • Since It Is not he per- 
sonally #1ld has to do the fighting, his collapses can 
occ\ir In |)j*lvate at Berehtesgeden. where he can re- 
cuperate, and then orice again come hack !7lth some 
new and always more desperate plan to destroy the 
enemy <i There Is a powerful compulsion In him to 
sacrifice him se lf a n d all ""o f Germany to the revenge- 
ful annihilation of Western culture ^ to die, craggln|^ ' 
all of Europe with him Into the abyss. This he would 
feel was the last resource of an Insulted and unendur- 
able existence ♦ 

7 . Hised for Creation^ Painting^ Ardhltecture ^ 
Oerman State, Legend of Self ,- We surmise that 
Hitler's early enthusiasm for painting was due to 
the fact (1) that this was the one exercise at which 
he excelled In school (and thus It offered a compensa- 
tory form of achievement); (11) that It provided an 
acceptable outlet for a destructive soiling tendency 
repressed In Infancy; and (111) that painting, and 


7''~-^-k'^^;:^-'n:-^iyf-^,^ir .^'^T<-y^i'^::^^^^0.< ■^>!■;';-•■f•l•ft,^«;r*/.;%t;^■/v>^>^!^''^^ 

^ 17 - 

especially ajrchltepture later, also called for much 
'<jonstructJlV|iaeSiS| which served to balance (operate 
as a reaettea formation to/ and atonement for) the 
"prlmltitfe.Madei^y'to destroy. . Hitler has always 
enjoyed the falfiting of ruined teinples (just as he 
has iiked t@ contemplate the destruction of cities 
Inhabited fey his $nemies ) j but he has likewise taken 
pleasure ia pa itttlng immense castles (just as he has 
'occupied himself? designing buildings fo.r che Third 

Reich). . 

A careful study of Hitler »*s writings and conduct 
has conVinoed us that he is not entirely devoted to 
destruicticaa, as so many claim. In his nature there 
Is a deep valid strain of creativeness (lacking, 
to be sure, the necessary talent). His creativity 
has been engaged in combining elements for an ideology, 
in organizing" the National Socialist farty, and in. 
composing the allegory of his own life . He is the 
author and leading actor of a great drama. 

Unlike other politicians. Hitler has conducted 
his life at certain seasons as a Romantic artist 
does, believing that it is the function of a nation's 
first statesman to furnish creative ideas, new policies, 
and plans . 

, - 18 - 

♦ - 8# Represaed Need for t^aaalvity and Abagexaent ^ 
ttaaochiaitt t^ Hitler ♦a lotig^concealed aecret hetero- 
aexual faJltliSS!^ h&s been expoaed by the ayatematic 
analysis anil c(>rreia t ion of the three thouaand odd 
metaphora iate usea In Meiti Kampf , The reaulta of thla 
stiady were later 60nfirxned by the teatimony of one 
who •^claims to know*** It is not neceaaary to deacribe 
Ita peculiar fbattires here; a-offlce it tc 3ay that 
the sexual pattern has resulted from the fusion of 
(i) a -.primitive excretory ' s65,llng tenden cy^ and (ii) 

I* 'a paaaive ipag c chlstlo teri i^eh cjg- (hypertrophy of the 

feminine component iri hia nake-up)^ The aeccnd 

element (masbchiam) derives much of ita atrengfch 

\ . . ■ . • 

from an uhcohacioua heed for' punlg&iheht ^ a tendency 

which may be expected in one who haa aasiduoualy re- 
preased^ out of swollen pride, the aubmiaaive reactions 
(complianoie;^ co-operation, payment of debts, expression 
of gratitude, acknowledgment of errors, apology, 
confession, atonement) which are required of every- 
body who would adaptively participate in social life* 
While Hitler consciously overstrives to assert his 
infinite superiority, nature instinctively corrects 
the balance by imposing an erotic pattern that calls 
for infinite ' self-abasement . 


- 19 ^ 

This erotic pattern, however, is not a strong 
force in Hitler »s personality, nor does it comprise 
his entire libidinal investment, it alternates with 
other patterns -^ repressed (or as some claim overt ) 
homosexuality , for example • 

What is important to recognize here is that the 
purpose of Hitler's prolonged counteractive efforts 
is not solely to rise above his hijnblc origins, to 
overcome his weaknesses and ineptitudes, but rather 
to check and conquer,'^ by means of a vigorous Idealego 
reaction format A on, an Underly ing positiv e cra ving 
for passivity 'a nd subnl ssion* There is no space 
here for the mass of evidence bearing en thit* point j^, 
but a few examples can be briefly listed: (i) the 
large feminine component in Hitler's physical constitu- 
tion', also his feminine tastes and sensibilities; 
(ii) his initial identification with his mother; 
(ill) his exaggerated subservience, in the past, to 
masterful superiors (army officers, Ludendorff, etc.); 
(iv) attraction to Roehm and other domineering homo- 
sexuals; (v) Hitler's nightmares which, as described 
by several informants, are very suggestive of homo- 
sexual panic; (vi) some of Hitler's interpretations 
of human nature, such as when he says that the people 
"want someone to frighten them and make them shudderingly 

jr- r , ^)jr •* ■'-'S- "i'^'!^< r-j-'T> '■r-^ - ■• , a ^ ^ . 


- 20 - 

aubmlsalVe'*;.(vll) Hitler 'tf repeated aaaertiona that 
he Intendai like Sulla, to abdicate power (after an 
orgy of conquest tith full catharsis of his hate) 
and live quietly tf himself , /pa in ting and designing 
buildings; and finally, (viii) recurrent siiicidel 

II, E.S. ttleoc^htricityy Dedication to the leaki ng 
of ah- i de ally Power f ul Germ dhy , - To trae 3em?an, 
frierid or foe, has ever. claimeJ thab Hltjai- is not 
•sincere in his dovc tion to the Pr;;.53iah J i ilit a riata ' 
ideal for gen aany> Thus we can say that he lias been 
ideocentric (dedicated to an idea) for the lest twenty 
years. Because the idea consists cf a plan for a 
society from which the majority of his fellow country- 
men will supposedly benefit, we can apeak of him aa 
aociopentrio (S) also. But since this interest in 
hia countrymen is clearly secondary to his personal 
ambition - fame, immortality - we put egocentricity 
(E) first; and so write - E. S. Ideocehtricity. It 
la rare to find so much ideocentrlcity in a narclstic 
personality; but only those who are incapable of such 
dedication are likely to doubt the reality of it in 


1,. Inaociatioh in Oermany. ^ Since Hitler and 

-.v;. <^--^v^!!:^-::^^<^-f^ :i:-5^vt 





- 21 - 

a large "body of .the German people are mutually 
agreeable, we can speak of him as Inaoclated ^ 
accepting and accepted. It ia Hitler's intense affec- 
tion, for the Re.ich (perhaps felt to this e::tent only 
Iby a nationalist born outside its ho^^ndaries) that 
has acted as a decisive factor in (i) his winning the 
support of t he people and so satisfying, his will to 
power; (iiV f^ iving hitn the feellng /of vo\nii6n, the 
sense of mission; (iii) providing xporal ^ uatificatioii 
(in his- own mind) for many illegal, acts; and (iv) 
keeping him r el stivel y ' sane, by bringing him into 
association with a group of like-minded men and so 
delivering him from the perils of psychclogical 


j TKbte . *• The supposition that in Hitler's mind 
Germany is identified with his mother helps to. explain 
the fervor of his dedication.) 
III. Sentiments . - 

Most of Hitler's sentiments ere well known and 
have already been listed: his high valuation of 
Power, Glory, Dictatorship, Nationalism, Militarism, 
and Brutality; and his low valuation of V'eakn^ss, 
indecision. Tolerance, Compassion, Peace, Rational 
Debate, Democracy, Bolshevism, Materialism, Capitalism, 





- 22 - 

the Jewish Race, Christianity* A simplification 
would be that; of regarding him as the advocate of 
the aggressive ingtinet (War. Power and Qlorj) vs . 
the acqiilsitive inatiflct (Business . Peace and 
pyoaperity) ^ -Two qtiestions deserve special con- 
siderations (1) Why, when he was living as an outcast 
in Vienna, did Hitler not become a Commuiiiat? and 
(2) What is the explanation of Hitlei-'s extt'eme 
Anti-Semi tismt 

i, ttotermihahta of flitler-^a Ahti-Conmiunisriv. 

1,, (a) Hitler's father was an upward 
mobile individual. Starting as a |>easant, he worked 
his way into the lower middle class, establishing 
a boundary between himself and those below him, " 
Both parents respected their social superiors. Thus 
Hitler instinctively retreated from too close associa- 
tion with the workmen of Vienna ♦ 

!• (b) Hitler was too frail for construc- 
tion work, was unable to hold a Job, and therefore 
had little opportunity to become associated with a 

1. (c) Having been an ardent natiohalist 
since the age of 12, Hitler's line of c^le^ivage (conflict 
between nations) did not conform to the communists' 
line of cleavage (conflict between classes )• 


r:^|wS"S-;" / '''■,-'' '■'■■■■■'■■■ ■ • ■ '■■ 


n^ W j.:^ 

• 23 - 

. ;>^ 

'-. "i 

r^f.* V'. 

X.^(d) Hitler has always been an advocate 
Of the hie rajfchical principle: government by the 
I'ittest, rigorously trained and proved in action, 
1?he ideal of COramunisni, on. the other hand, calls for 
a wide diatribution of power among those \jn trained 

to rule* 

1. (e) Hitler's sentiments have been with 
militarism from earliest youth. The materialism of 
Communism never appealed to him.. 

1. (f ) Lacking sympathy for the underdog, 
-the humanitarian aspect of Communism did not attract 
him. Hitler has always been a bully, 

Z. Peter mihahts of Hitler* s Ahti- 3emiti8m^. ^ 

2, (a) The influence of wide-spread Anti- 
Semitic sentiments (represented especially by such 
men as Lueger and Peder), traditional in Germany. 

2, (b) Hitler's personal frustrations 
required a scapegoat as focus for his repressed aggres- 
sion.^ The Jew is the classic, scapegoat because he 
does ttot fight back with fists and weapons, 

2. (c) The Jew was an object upon whom 
Hitler could suitably project his own inferior self 
(his sensitiveness, weakness, timidity, masochistic 


• 24 - 

fe* " -^ 

2. (d) After the Versailles Treaty the 
German people also needed a scapegoat. Hitler offered 
them the Jewish race «a an act of political strategy. 
2, (e) Having assembled a veritable army 
of gangsters. (Nazi troopers) and aroused theli? fight- 
ing spirit^ it was necessary tor Hitler to find some 
object upon whom these men could vent their brutish 
passions, to canalize anger away from himself w 
( 2< (f) Jew8> being non-mill tiarls tic, 

could only impede his program on conquest. In 
eliminating them he Ibst no sizeable support* 

2» (g) Jews were associated with several 
of Hitler's pet antipathies: business, materialism^ 
democracy, capitalism, communism. 

2, (h) Some Jews were vefy rich and Hitler 
needed an excuse for dispossessing them. 
iV. I^ormal Structure .Hysteria » Sohlzbphreniia ." 
Hitler has a relatively weak character (ego 
structure); his great strength comes from an 
emotional cow^lex which drives him periodically. 
Usually he can not voluntarily force himself to stick 
to a routine of wprkj he must be compelled from inside, 
lifted on a. wave of pessiOn.- His id (Inatlnctual 
forces) and ego 6roluntary control) are in league; 
his superego (conscience) is repressed* 

. »':«•.. 



- 25 - 

1. Hysteria ♦ - Hitler has exhibited various forms 
of hysterical dissociation, most notably in the two 
symptoms which constituted his war neurosis in 1918, 
namely blindness and aphonia (mutism) . He experiences 
periods of marked abstraction, violent emotional 
outbtirsts, visions of hallucinatory clarity. In 
speaking before crowds he is virtually posoisaed . 
He clearly belongs to the sensational cMipany of 
history- making hysterics, combining, as he does, , 
some of the attributes of the primitive shaman, the 
religious visionary, and the crack-brained demagogue - 
Consummate actors, one and all.' 

It is important to note, however, that Hitler 
ha a a large measure of control over his complexea . 
He uses ©n emotional outbxirst to get his own way, 
turning it on or off as the occasion requires. As 
Srikson says, he "knows how to exploit his hysteria... 
Oh the stage of German history. Hitler senses to what 
extent it is safe and expedient to let his own person- 
ality represent with .hysterical abandon what lives 
in every German listener and reader." 

2. Schizophrenia .- Psychiatrists are not' un- 
familiar with borderline staterSj, lying between hysteria 
and schizophrenia. In gome cases the former develops 

S*;) • - 



- 2S 

' >^" • ^ 


into the latter (a serious Variety of Insanity). 
Since Hitler, as noted above, has exhibited all the 
Syttptoms of paraooid aohizbphrehia ^ the possibility 
of a complete mental breakdown is not remote. 

Hero again, however, it should be observed that 
fearanoid dynamics can be used very effectively in 
rouaing a nd focussing the fbroes of a minority party 
or of a defeated nation . The strategy consists chiefly 
In (i) painting vivid and exaggerated word-pictures 
of the crimes and treacherdus evil purposes of your 
powerful opponents (delusions of persecution); (li) 
persuading your own group of its innate superiority 
and glorious destiny (delusions of grandeur); (iii) 
' subduing conscience by asserting that your common 
end Justifies the meana, that your opponents have 
used the most dastardly means in the past; and (iv) 
' blaming your enemies for every frustration, every 
disaster that occurs. In consciously employing these 
tactics Hitler has exploited his own paranoid trends 
and retained some governance over them. 

Thus the answer to the question. How has Hitler 
escaped veritable insanity? might be this: (i) he 
has gained a large- measure of control o ver his 
hysterical end perahoid trends by using them 

."v.'^/^v-;c-^:.'% ""'^j^? •;;••: 

•"^^- •r^^c^W^^-'v'^r j-^>r :-v- 



- 27 - 

conaclously and auccessfuHy in the achievement 
of hisaima; (ii) he haa identified himaelf with and 
dedicated himaelf to a aooiocehtrio purpoae, the 
creation of an ideal Gannany, which haa served to 
diminish the paina and perils of an isolated egocen- 
trism; and (iii). he has beeA aupi'emely successful 
in imposing his visions and delusions (conforming, 
as they did, with existent trends) upon the German 
people, and so convincing them of his unparalleled 
superiority. Thus his irreal world feas become reel, 
insanity is sanity . 

V. 1. Abili ties and jSf^eetlye traits . - Hitler ' s 
su(ib66s has depended to «i' targe extent upon his own 
peculiar abilities and traits: 

1* (a) The ability to express with passion 

the deepest needs and longings of 

the people. 
1. (b) The ability to appeal to the most 

primitive as well as to the most 

ideal tendencies in men.' 
1. (c) The abilitf -to simplify complex 

probfiitf and arrive at the quickest 

solution « 
1. (d) The ability to use metaphblf and draw 

0# traditional imagery an^ iyth in 

speaking ahd writing. 


- 28 - 



/4 ■ 

Ji (d) The ability to evoke the sympathy 
ir:r. - '] and protectiveness of his people. 

The leader's welfare becomes a matter 
* of concern to them* 
* iV (f ) Complete dedication to his mission; 

abtindant self-confidenae; and stubborn 
adherence to a few principles. 
!• (g) Mastery of the art of political 

1. (h) Tactical genius; precise timing. 

1, (i) Mastery of the art of propaganda. 
2. Principles of f>olitical Action . - 


Among the guiding principles of Hitler's^ 
political philosphy the following are worth listing: 
&♦ (a) Success depends on winning the 

support of>. the masses* 
2# (b) The leader of a now movement must 
appeal to youth* 

2. (c) The masses need a sustaining ideology; 

it is the function of the leader to 

provide one. 
2. (d) People do not act if their emotions 

are not roused. ^ 
2. .(e) Artistry and drama are necessary to 

the total effect of political rallies 

and meetings^ 



:mm'^ ■ 

m&^p--' ■ 




'^ ^^^ 

- 29 - 

2. (f) The leading statesman iil\ist be a 
creator of ideas and plans. 

2# (g) Success jiistifies any means. 

2n (h) A new movement can not triumph 
without the effective \ise of 
terroristic methods 

B. Predictions of Hitler* a Behavior 
Whatever else happens It can be confidently pre- 
dicted that Hitler » 3 neurotic spells wil l Increase 
In frabuen cY and dup^tlon and his effec tiveness as a 
lead er will dlmlnlsk : responsibility will fall to a 
greater or less extent on othe* shoulders. Indeed 
there is some evidence that his mental powers have 
.been. deteriorating since' last November, 1942. Only 
once or twice has he appeared before his people to 
enlighten or encourage them. Aside from the increase 
in neurotic symptoms the following things might happen: 

1. Hitler may be forcefully se ized by the 
Military Coimnand or by soane revolutionary fac tion in 
Germany and be immured in soirne prison fortress . 
This event is hard to envisage in view of what we 
know of the widespread reverence for the man and the 
protection that Is afforded him. But if this were 
to occur the myth of- the Invincible hero wo\ild end 



*''^*ft f 'i- 


. 30 - 

B^' i ^' 


Tather Ignominloualy, and Hitler should eventually 
be delivered into our hands,. The General Staff 
will no doubt become the rulers of Germany if Hitler's 
mental condition deteriorates much further (Option #5). 

2; Hitler may be shot by some German . - The 
•man ha a feared this eventuality for many years and 
today he is protected as never before. Germans are 
not inclined to shoot their leaders. This is possible 

but not very likely. 

5, Hitler way arrange to have hi mself shot by 
koroe German, perhapy by a ^ew . r This would complete 
t;he myth, of the hero f death at the hand of some 
trusted follower: Siegfried jstabhed in the back by 
•Hagen, paegar by Brut\is> Qhrist betrayed by Judas. 
It might increase the fanaticism of the soldiers 
for a while and create a legend in conformity with 
th« ancient pattern. If Hitler could arrange to have 
a Jew, 9wne paranoid llk9. himself ^ kill him, then He 

could die in the belief that his fellow countrymen 
would rise in their wrath and massacre every remaining 

Jew in Germany*. Thus he might try to indulge his 

insatiable ravengefulneas for the last time. 

4, Hitler may' get himself kill ed leading his 

elite, troops in battle . - Thus be would live on as a 

■>■:«/ &V ,t-. .'^nx^.n^s, . -^ ;. . 

- 31 - 

' : 4 

h3 r 

::-;*; ; 

'"• o..".^". 


• .VrtJ, - 


heco in the hearts of his countrymen. It ia not 
unlike ly, that he will choose this course, which would 
be very undesirable from bur point of vi«w, first 
because his death would serve as an example to all 
his followers to fight with fanatical death-defying 
energy to the bitter end, and second, because it would 
insure ^tier's immortality - the Siegfried who led 
the Aryan hosts against Bolshevism and the Slav. 
This is one of Hitler 'a^ favorite poses. 

S. ftitler may go- in sane .^^ The man has been on 
the verge of paranoid schizophrenia for years and 
with the mounting load of frustration and failure 
he may yield his will to the turbulent forces of the 
unconscious. This would not be undesirable frCm pur 
standpoint, because, even if the fact were hidden 
from the people, morale would rapidly deteriorate 
as rumors spread, and the legend of the hero would 
be severely damaged by the outcome. If Hitler became 
insane, he should eventually fall into the hands of 
the Allied Nations . 

S. Hitler liaay commit suicide . - Hitler has often 
vowed that he would commit suicide if his plans 
miscarried; but if he chooses this course ho will do 
it at the last moment and in the most dramatic possible 

[C-*. ^^i^'^r* ' ' , 

- 32 - 

mannel-. He will retreat, let tia say, to the impregnable 
little refuge that was btiilt for him on the top of 
the mountain behind the Berghof (Berchtesgaden) . 
There alon0 he will wait until troops come to take him 
prisoner. As a grand climax he will either (i) blow 
up the mountain end himself with dynamite; or (ii) 
make a funeral pyre of hia dwelling and throw hiiraelf 
on it (a fitting oBtterdammerung; or (iii) kill him- 
self with a silver bullet (Emperor Chriatophe); or 
(iv) throw himself off the parapet. This outcome, 
.undesirable for us, is not at all unlikely. 
,7V Hitler may die of natu ral causes , - 
8. Hitler may aeek refuge in a neutral country... 
This is not likely, but one of his associates might 
drug him end take him to Switzerland in a plane and 
theti persuade him the t he should stay there to write 
his long-plfenned Bible for the German folk. Since 
the Hero's desertion of his people would seriously 
damage the legend, this outcome would be more 
desirable than some- of the other possibilities. 

g. Hitler may fall into the hand s of the 
United Hatiohs .^ This is perhaps the least likely, 
but the most desirable, outcome. 

^ t;^" . 



- 33 - 

in asking these predictions we have been swayed 
most by the supposition thet Hitler's chief concern 
13 the immortality of his legend and consequently 
he will endeavor to plan his own end according to 
the most heroic/ tragic and dramatic pattern. 
Optipns #5 (insanity to some extent) and #3 (dramatic 
suicide), Qt #4 (death at the front), strike us as 
roost probable today. 

Propaganda measures should, if possible, be 

devised to prevent #4 and #5. 


""i5»»^Mt' ,' ' 

C. aupgeations for the Tregtment 'of Eitlor 

Ir After the Defeat of (^.erm any, if Hjtlor is 
4.,ir An into custody by th e Ttnited j?a.ti6ns.- Any one 
Of the conventional punishihenta ^ a trial followed 
by execution, by life imprisonment or by exile - 
will provide a trafgio ending for the drama of Hitler's 
sensational career; and thus contribute the element 
'that is noeess'ary to the resu rrection and perpetuation 
of tha Hitlerien legend , '"hat can the Allies do that 
will spoil the tragedy and thus kill the legend? 
As an answer to this question, the following plen is 
suggested.. It should work if properly executed. 

- 34 - 

1. (a) Bring the Naei leaders to trial; 
condemn the chief culprits the death, hut proclaim 
Hitler mentally unbalanced. 

1. (h) Commit Hitler to en insane asylum 
(such as St. Elisabeth's, Washington, D. C.) and house 
him in a comfortable dwelling specially built for his 
occupancy* the world know that he is being well 


1, (c) Appoint a committee of psychiatriata 

4 , 

and paychologiata to examine him and test his faculties 
at r^gwler intervals f Unknown to him, have sound'* 
films taken of bis l?ehavl©y. They will show his fits 
and tirades end condewhationi? pf everyone in the world, 
including t^e German peoples 

1. (d) Exhibit rogUlarly to the public 
of the entire world aelectod segments of these sound- 
reels, ao thet it een be teen how unbalanced he is, 
how mediocre his performance on the customary teats. 
•If taken in a routine, atilentific and undramatio manner 
the pictures will become quite tireaome ofter a while 
and the people will get bored with Hitler in a year or 
so. (Trust spolence to. take the drapa out of anything.) 

1^ (e) Hitler's oaae showld bo presented 
to the world as a leason: "This is what happens to • 


:r' 'Uf^k 

jj*.Vv}- it**-' '""'*'- il< :'^* 'Hi' ■^uC-^'fif'^ '■<' •" 

".VI.' f~H . ►-k",^4.. -^v'^dkf.^J,^, '■■*,» -f 


- 35 - 

crack-brained fanatics who try to dominate the world." 
As such it could serve as a powerful deterrent to 
others with fantasies of world domination. 

1. (f ) A thorough study of Hitler's personal- 
ity would be of considerable importance to psychiatry j 
and the publication of a carefully documented book 
on the subject would not only act as a deterrent 
(publi3ho4 in popular form) to future would-be Hitlers, 
"but would ^e a significant contribution to science. 

2. T^^f»»>^T. Wow and the .Cosaation of HdstJlitJes. - 
The aim should be either (i) to accelercte Hitler»8 
mental deterioration, to drive him insane; or (ii) 
to prevent hip frop irisuring the perpetuation of his 
• legend by ending hi«« life dramatically and tragically. 
TheJPe are various paychoiogical techniques avail- 
able for accelerating Hitler'? nervous brerkdown, 
but they will not be oonsidored here. None could be 
30 certsiniy effective as repeated military setbacks. 
VJQ Shall limit ourselves to a few measures which 
might serve (2. (a)) ijo detar Hitlep from arranging 
a hero's or a martyr's death for himself, and (2. (b)) 
to make him believe thf»t the immortality of his legend 
will not suffer if ho falls into the hands of the 
United Nations. 

- ^6 




2* (ft) Flood Germany with coraraunlcatioha 
(leaflets, short-wave , long- wave , official speeches, 
underground transmission from Sweden, Switzerland, 
Turkey) telling the .people that Hitler can not be 
trusted, that he is planning (quoting Hess, Strasaer^ 
Hanfstaefigel, Iteuschnlng and other Na?;is in England 
and America) to l^ave them treacherously to their 
fate by getting himself killed. This will be a sly 
trick of his to insure his own prestige and future 
fame. He does not care for the Gorman people; he cares 
only for bis Oim glory. He is ho better than a sea- 
captain who quits his ship, leaving his crew to 
drown. Drop vivid cartoons of Hitler rushing 
* ludicrously forward to hie death on the Russian front 
(out of a guilty conscience over the noble Germans he 
has condemned to die there for his glory); also 
cartoons of his arranging to have himself shot, and 
others of his committing suicide. Interpret this as 
the easy way out, a cowardly betrayal of his people, 
the act of a bad conscience, the qulntcsaenco of 
vanity. Warn the people against him,, the false 
prophet, the Judas Isparlot of the German Revolution, 
etcetera. If hundreds of these leaflets, pamphlets » 














^ ii^"'" 


l"* V '■*•• 


' V-^.4-i. 

*'^.'' . 

r \ ;i" 

" "1 ,' 

y^o • 

. ' •' ' r 

'J<-.' . • 


,' ; ' 


* '<t 

" s,\ \ * 

I. "VK- 


" f';T'. 


•'^*>' / 


- 37 - 

gtroamers ,©«•« dt'opped over Berchteagaden, the chances 
^re that i&m Of the© will foil In places where Hitler 
felmself la Ukely to come oh them. He Is very sus- 
peptlhle to ridicule, and if the cartoons are clever 
.enough to make suicide seem cowardly, grotesque, or 
l-idlculousV i* ">ay ^® enough to deter him. Predic- 
tion will $ppil the startling effect. 

$^ (h) Flood Germany with another series 
of qommwilcatlons in which the people are told that 
^ho Nazi leaders who led them into this disastrous 
ira« are going to t>e e^s^QUted ^ afyQ^ccept Hitler, 
^ who will ho exiled to ^alnt He;i.ena where he can brood 
* ove|t h4?i airi«i foi- the rest of his IXt^* write as 
if we thoughit that thi? wafl the most terrihle of all 
pvnisbments. But actually this idea should appeal 
to Hitler, who greatly adinlres Napoleon and knows 
that the Napoleonle legend was fostered by the man's 
last years at Saint Helena, This treatment would 
be better than any he could now be hoping to receive 
from his enemiea. It inlghtj positively attract him. 
He would imagine himself painting landscapes, writing 
his new Bible, end making planig for an even greater 
Oermanvr^volutt<:>h to be oeirried out in his namo thirty 
years henoe^ 

- 38 - 

By the repeated and not too obvious use of these 
two messagea Hitler wduld be faced by a conflict 
between (D a self-annihilation which might be in- 
terpreted as a cowardly betrayal, and (2) a peaceful 
old age at Saint Helena. He might choose the latter 
and so alloir himself to be taken by the Allies . 
Only later tould he discover that ther^ was to be 
no .Saint Helena for him. This trick of ows is 
justified by the necessity of pi?eventing the resurrec- 
tion of the memory of Hitler aa a superman to rouse 
future generations of criminals aid revolutionaries. 

p. anpi pestions for the Treatment of the 

I. Tf««tening the> >^»«kdo#t^ of Geyffianyta Faith in 
Hitler.- the German people have put th^ir Whole trust 
in Hitler. He is their:»tai^ > as h6 military coiamander 
representing "a special OlasS cdiiild be their man. 
Having taken the entire responsibility for the conduct 
of affairs, he has become tl^eir conscienc e and so 
relieved them temporarily of guilts The^jrido— - 
system and security- system of each individual German 
is thus based on Hitler^s genius and success. The 
bulk of the people will not easily be persuaded of 

.*"-; -.^^^-^^n'nr^-^ 

- 39 - 

it ■ 

' '^ V 

his incompetence and falseness. They will cling as 
long as possible to the illiision of his omniscience 
because without this they have nothing. Vvhen it 
comes, f.v.» ^t^iftnchantment wil l be sudden and catas- 
trophic to -German morale generally. 

The Allies can rely on the march of physical 
events to bring about the eventual disenchantment 
of th« German people; but since events will march 
faster aiid the W8^ viU end sooner if this disencbant- 
jnsnt cm be hastened by other means, the Allies should 
not overloo)5 the power of wopds to change sentiments 
and attitudes. The foiLlowing suggestions may prove 

of sow© value , 

1. (a) Technique o f communication.- One 
effective wethod would be th^t of prlntit^^ leaflets 
containing the r^ames^ ran^ and regiments of German 
soldiers ?>edently taken prisoner , The Gestapo could 
hardly succeed in p'reventJlig an^^ious parents from 
picking up these leaflets to obtain the latest news 
of their sons at the front. Communications of this 
sort might start somewhat as follows: NEWS PROM THE 
FRONT. Among the 20^000 German soldiers who surrendered 
to the V<orld Army In Sicily the following were happy 
at the prospect of going to America, the land of free 

.•;■. .■ ;->; ■. ■■i-.s^(.y.vJ'<-;>.-'. i;'-:v"..f-; . >-''.■,':■■'%-;-' 

-«»40 - 


speech and free aOtlon: Corp. Hans Schmidt, Capt. 
Heinrlch Wittels-j etc. etc. «Why are you laughing?" , 
they were asked.. "Because, •* they answered, "we are 
going to the United States; whereas you are going 
^o the land of the False Prophet and the Geatapol" 

etc., etc. 

We suggest that HEWS PROM THE FRONT be distributed 
at regular weekly intervals, like a newspaper; in 
order that the GerwEns will learn to expert it and 
look forward to it, sJtnce it will contcin news that 
they can npt obtain in apy other way. 

Mixed in with the lists of German prisoners could 
be printed the messages that we T»ish to impart to the. 


1. (b) Name fdr Ritler »-» In the minds of 
piany Germans the woi^ "Hitler** is ^till surrounded 
by a layer of reve^ntial feelings which protect his 
image from attack. Therefore it would be better not 
to refer to hiffl (except occasionally) by name. Much 
more subtly effective would bo the vise of another 
term; False prophet or P'also Messiah. Iiater more 
dorogatpry terms - the Amateur Strategist, Corporal 
SatQn, World Crlml^nel No. l - might bo effective. 

- 41 - 

1* fc) gtifeatlt?tttlon of a Higher Symbol ♦ 4 
ffe* (jeiinatt <5l5ial»eotdr*»tJ?u6t;iir« la igprked by a atrcint 
U0ed t6 trer^hi,^! abefi «in<3i aceriiioe, ^eti thla ^m 
b^ jp^ettaaedl-oa $01110 eotl*?' * &0«J| tbe Abaolute, fche^ 
0!9?B»ftB at»t0, tUft Fuetoj? * my ^te hajypy end b^&lthy', 
COOa^quently, lis i^ilb© e#«|if«* to breajc their pr^aent? 
eU«^aoo« t0 attltf tf a aatlafactory aubatitutf is 
pr«i^$QtJ.t;ad* iJhi d^^majia will not recdily accept a. 
vAliae that iM Ideatlfla^ in their minda with th^ 
apeclal pr«terencea of an enemy*natlon (Ifem^crSQy, 
et<|4 ) i it inuat M aomethlng higher. ' som ething aUpra-* 
aitiotial tb»t ■wlU'e:«clt0 the reapeat of aU peoples 
^Xiikef. Ther^ la a greet need now, rather than later, 
fei? 9om fe«a. of t'orld federation s But Iftolfing ^iSi 
the Auiea^ In their meaaago to Oat^mcny^ aho^X<3^^« 
terme that auggeat Ita apirit* Ag^inat Hltle^^ th0 
li^la© Prophet, the propag$ndiata ahouXd apeak of the 
World Cohac ierice (the name of God can not be Uaed 
without hypocriay), and ahouXd a]^eak of the forcea 
of Rusaia, Great Britain^ France, and the Amerlcaa aa 
the World Army * (N.B* Suggeatlon for one leaflet: 
Quo a ti on: Wh§ haa aeduced the Gormen people from 
their true p^th? Who haa turned their hcarta agcinat 
the Conaciea0t of the World? V-lio la reaponaible 
thla time fo^ Germany » a Qncirclemont by the World 
Army?)* to bf effective the terma "World Conacience" 



■ ■ ^ 42 - ' 

ft^'^oria Ajioy^ -iSti^t b^'Jf'epoatfe^ froquontly, ''world 

miSBikQa fy^m tlie fiyg^ titte3S;t)^gated ^dljliion of 
lleia |^<#f deiii6ast*6fil«g Sl,dei»»i cfiiiefil eenteuipt 
' of €li6 i&$a.98« lieli W^ ^WHOa fSS F^Kf efeouldi sad 
lidt&enf dp thfist" quota tleris, • 

m$ii$li»i * *^m$H%it!i±^ i^tMJ^QA th« «6dei m the 

Wveldpaeat of tlid ITixtir ?iis*tf efld tltlef i^tibliely 
asQ^f eased Ma edtoii*8tie« f6J» the t^lififi loaSei*, 
(|t|;$rW6w3«. (jfi this p&lttt shtwild fed i«(S|)finted.) 
Muaaelini'a foil will do niuch. to Tjndej«ttino Gepmfiti 
morale, end no 0|»|>0J?tuaAty'ah6tild bo ssiissed to 
fifej*Q#«^th^ eoijinedti gftt 1?o^#een HJij.oi'^ii deatlriy arid 

I fH. lf J I ■ I I. M l I I ..." ■■ I I I II ■ l«< !■■ I. ' l ' i '» ■ ' I . I I . I I . ■' M il IIWW . M.ui » ■inj ! I III I I <i ■l.U I I Ml 

lijiss6iitti«$ dMMi '*' i*»^ tJdclln© and ffilX of the 

:. II i: ' J II . iw . . .. I ... 1 . 1 . i ' .■ " 

Xi it} , ^he Cbhceptioh of t)estiriy » ' * 
^mextxH bolioVo 1» ' i^redoatlhatioiii (thQjtmvo.of t*id 
fttl»lt*e), and all ootnnrunlcatlona eddl^eaaed to them ahotild v 
bo written aa If thd dofont of tho felae Prophet 
WGim a forefone concluaion. Some meaaagea ahotild 
eo«Q from tho ^Voioo of ffiatoi'y*. 

^ %¥ (fj fitelhg 'Advantage of Hitler* a 

»ii!-. ..•^•/;; •••■J' :V.; 

- 43- 

y^««IilUr*« fl^e<}lsG 9tctus and role in 

dQt50fioi?atJlnS*- Thit gljouXd fes mamQd io- talking 
t^ tho a^Mn. Eoeple / nip ^xamplQ ; ViJo« that 
mn$olitiX h64 OoUap$0d W Hitlej? i# in the h^nds 
of' cental af0eiali9ta>>hat haa b^cowo of the Spirit 
0f iPasOiSBif '* P^ "!>«» yo^ s^^ii belldve that a inan 
wfaoao sanity bsa tsQen ootaplotoly Widejrmined by Guilt 
0«in l6ad' the Q^rmaii people to viotory agrinat the 
woridt'V . ;, , 

i: (M 6ettiieny*a Oho fomoini nff Ally. Japan^ * 
fhe Mzi'to^im should bo (Constantly ooupled with 
' Japan in xn ironical or satirical manner* For example J 
«Tho Ha^ia and their blood^brothcrsj the Japanese, 
have boibh demonstrated their willingneas to die for 
Satan -*-'tiiia summer one million of them have thro^ 
airay tbQlr uvea in a ftjitile attempt to destroy 
fiivilization," «who is responsible for this ignoble 
league of Germany and Japan against the Conscience 
of the World?" "A fact to be explained: Gcnrians 
are dyi&g every day fighting ^i^ Japanese against 
Gorman-Aiiierieans* ^f li. that? VrtiiS la responsible," 

.\. .. • ' • ■ ■ • . ■ 

- 44 * ■ 

X« (4} Hiunieh Student Manifesto. - In 
pUenlng JJieSdages to &0rman^ hinti for one line of 
propa^indd can l>« obtaified from tfee revDlutionaX':^ 
manifesto distributed Xagt year bjr students at the 
University of Wml^h* 

84 gesAft f^^oB . HHiX &t Wa j* 6rltfeinai$ « - 
IS* (al Pis^ciiel^glcally i% la important 
that at tie ^i tt thi leader 6| th« STszl Pert?:, b§ 
th« Oft« t» sttrren4l«» and slgft the ^eaef tt^aty* 
the Alliea dh<rt*id itisiaU m thi8> shduHd dreg tM 
giifigtttera without dereatfiny froai their hidihg ^laees 
and foree thea t$ alga* (A little trlcirery at thlt 
peint #b^d be Justified.) Th$ tennS shcmld be 
' severe "ife first* Later when a aoro l-epfesentative 
goverh^ent has been established tha.tenns can be made 
more. lenient. Thus in the futuro the dictators will 
be recalled In coiinectloh tith the humi liation of. 
unconditional suirrehder ; whereAs the democratic 
govemwettt will get the credit of securing milder terms* 

2* (b) A World Court, at least one member 
of which la a SWISS and one a Swede | should immediately 
publish a list of war criminals, ad complete as possible, 
ahd heutrial countries should be officially warned 
that fto mn on this list must bo given s^nctuary^ 

* ' ♦.v;:c.vV''*»i.''* 

-. 45 - 

ThB Allies 9houia b9 prepared to Invade any coTintry 
^tet haj?bor«> iwor Id criminal, 

2> (V) The trial 6t the war crirainala 
shpuid .b« ' carried out with the utmost despatch. It 
must not h0- allowed to drag m m months, as this 
wouia" give the (SermShs « convincing impression of oui* 
■jnoaral w^atoess and incompetence ^ and postpone their 
r^generatien* ta oonneQtion with the trial a short 
reiaahle •book should' be published in aerman explaining 
the naturd of international law (thi brotherhood 
of nations). and exposing the crlmQS committed by the 
fas^sistt in A.B.O* language, 

: A pamphlet oomparing the terms of the Versailles 
T^-eaty* with Germany's method of dealing with conquered 
couhtriea given wide circulation* 

' . 3^ Treatment of the German Peop le after the 
(^ftflflfltton of Hostilities. - 

/ I%-i!i a«itimed"that Germany, will be invaded and 

OOAupiOd IfAa^lled- forces I that aiwwitanaously tho^ 

will be upl-lsings of slava labor and of civilians in 

C^^cupied territories; that raUch GeraaA blood will be 

agilled* ^This is as it should be •* a fitting Nemesis* 

Tha- Allied ttoops will march in and eventually restore 

prdflki** This function of restoring order will mcke 

their presence more acceptable It thi Germans, 


,-'- 1 • 

■• V-.*»!v^^*fv* 

T* "^ -^ « "* 

- 48 - 

$tV»^ ^i*««i<rte0i tb»^ w« id.U firva t ho Gorman 
pdopie ptdfiMJiial? tomlliattd, J?6t#i*3e«i* dlson^hantaa, 

%Q Obeying m artel ti?arf ©ntjeiiaaX' autilioritjy* fehor will 
hairs iiQ d6paadaba;« t»t»«x» gttidoa to co6Wl fe«fa6vicrtp* 
ther* wiU >e « wava of eriwe dnd s«lol;<l^* Apathy 
\iili hd y^&n^spifee^d* m^mg iraaaed thj^ough a parlod 
of ietetiae uiiaMl^iiity tiei «iet»pfajfatlett» ^pmnf aa a 
aoeial aystett itill fall «^i?t^ esaia wait tfi auffet 
paitt aM «ojptiftcati<m in ^H.«^ta* 

Mai^^ianlzatleR ahd aojifualou will bo geae^al, 
Qjjtaatlng a hi?aadtas ^6i«id f<i«* eixlta of ^ixit^ma 
indiyldualisiH * A 6 ©ftalda J^bla ^art of the popwlatiort 
i»iU he weighed d&^m by a hsavy aooae of guiit* i^ch 
should. lead to % l^avliml of rNsiigloa* f ha soil «^ll 

V * ' - "... 

m laid for ft aplritiual i«a#fiai?attoa; arid pax^haifS 
the ^ewmm, m^ w^V idXi ifibetit tH» futui»«« 
.' %<j im aastiiaad thati. ^sha Alliaa ■•dll dBB^litai!i|.t« 
' cjerawayi mil tftaia^ ^ affteiaht guaji^aafeaea agaihat 
tMiS\xt»njim»pt!tBo%mi *dll tajfe sta&a to li<|ai<5a«a 
thft ^t(hjj5e* C3taaa| *tll ^ravefit raarmanieat and tho 
tala^aa ofraw niatenala. Aa Dr. Fde rater has aald: 
< a aoft peace for Germany will be a v ery hard peace 
for th6 german people, dollverlftls them to the Prusalart 
caste who led them aats?63r.* 




- 47 - 

th«y ««'6r <5«stla«4 ta gmem the eai«thj| (3) tlJf^lJ there 
la np human I6i» Q» tiL^^hdrity higheJ? thsa feh« gooi 
*i>f the O^xsnaa stats i. (4 > that fowet li to tje &&ai|.ea 
ifeof e dve^ythiiitj 4a4 (S J that Might Wftkea Mght . 
, ]jfi ti»estiaa th# (SoK^siaa '^$?«hftXe$t«aUs' *s Mtist 

realise thttt Jr6 ar« deaUiit ?lth i mti&n staff oring 
f^m pArahelcl tre»dti d«Xiaiiona ©f graadsm?; delusiona 
ei* per«eoutt6s; l»*o^6iiiaa. hatred Qf atre«g efi^oftehta 
aad o(iateiB|»t «sf wefek oi^ffoeota; 8fr6gfn<s«, sii&pt4t©u9«eag 
aad "«fiyy * all «?^ *J»i<i^ ^^^ "^^^® ^^^^^ ^^ ^^ ^ rtactioe 

^^djtibly.ths fll-at .foui* stefs ta thd troatrtent 
of; a aiiiflQ, ^ai«6fl0id DorstShaXltr <»aa b« adapted te the 
' 6&hir4i'aioh e>^ Qwrasuay. jt attesiftiaa tht« va iffuat 
6©t. foi^g^t thftt tha «0i4i»§« ©I their piyahi^ siQ^0as 

$tU\ Pi rat Step ^- 'The physician mist 
, fgcih the "respect of tfae petlent . 

(i) Individual paranoid * »■ Paranolda 

caji not t^ twtod' atiC^esafmiXy If th^^y are not tftprasaod 

- 48 - 

(conteietisj;?' fiJP ilficen^eloualy) by the ability, knowledge, 
i»l|(|p»t, 6r/^l»fed|^ ««i>3g- flra^etlc fol«c0, at the physioian* 

tfeia^toa, 8i6cd ^«i*afi6i^s» ibeiiif ftiU oeT aeet^i are 

'• ' . (ti) |il3SlM*^ "^^ s»egiindnt0 that 

6©6tii^y Q**a«ttf ahduid- be ^ifei© fittest thit th^ tJteited . 
fritiae* eaii «8!le»blft * m%tm%%t with a Bkiftefy t>t • 

^oBffiAhddd bf thi best g0ne**eXa* Rowdltieaa and dj^uhken* 

heaa aheald «&t b« paimitttd* l?tt« (SettHfthS ahoiad b« , 

eoa^lldd ta adifiitj ♦•fhes^ sm splendid mss^ not ths 

i^^ak dsgehepttes (dea©fir6tl6'so-ldlei»s) oi* b&rbarlfeft^ 

(litUSSiSft seidiejiis) we' wei^e led te expect*** T?he mf-^ 

i&thS adaii*^ *S?detoiSesa, preclalbii, efficiency* 

'3. <b) Second Step ,- The potential WortBj 
of the patient ahouid oe fully 
■' acknowledged . ' . ■ 

^ (1) vtndivldual paranoid »* 1?he in* 

dWeXXihg. brtimlng hungef -Of the |)arattold is fbr reccgnl* 
ilon, poW«|» and glox»y « pralae froft thcao whom he 
feapecta* ^Phla hunger ahotil<I be appeaaed aa aoon 
aa poaSlblMli 80 that the .paraneld thinks to hlmaelf: 
•♦The great mSiS sfJ^J^eclatea me. fftgethei* we can face 
the worXd*** It, is aa if ' he thought: "Se IS.God the 
PatheV Snd I am his choaew aon."* 

rjT5.^l^5:^vr5.-:rprf-.>--.?)!r^"'t':*>'<"'-'- .'•■■■■■■■ 


- 49 - 

(11) . Germany .-^ Germany's country- 
ai€d, It^ inuslO, tetlstaric culttire and rafinuments of 
t«tfuty thduld bo appJ^QClatei and ga?ai$od4 Th<J ai»my 
of oeciii>*at Ion should waftifoat Intana^ latQi?eti% in the 
' c»ltu;^Q of Old GeiiBatty ahd ooaij^ote Indlfforenco to 
ail repent deveXopments;/ The tif-oopS should he instructed 
and- QOached by lecttires ' aftd gtt£de*bbdks covei?lng the 
district.} they will oocupy* TWj ahould be told that 
the wftr la not tfoa. ujitii the heart of the German 

' oeoplis iMta beeii won. 

9c:^ana' of the old' school ahould be hired to 
teach thfl Oerman language; to guide the goldiers 
on tourd of the country and of muaotuns,, to teach 
native '.art^ and skills* Ooncerta should bo arranged, 
omitting piecee that have boen specially favored by 
the Nazis ♦ iditiottS of bi?oka burned by the^ Nazis 
.shijuld be publiiSh^d and put ots sale immediate ly, • • 
' All thi« will aeiHre a double purpose* It will 
provide edu^atioh fol? our troops and oecupy their . 
tittej thua hftipiag to maiat^itt tnorale. Also the 
^ubaei'ged laferiority feelings aftd resentment a of 
the Seraiaftrwill be alleviated* 

w^r*- ■ 

- 50 - 

'" . 3 (0) Third Stop ..- Inalght ahould be tactfully 

-. . pyovldeSTo irfctle at a tlmo . 

.; (1) Individual. i)6l^n&id.* V6i>y 

gp^duaily* ateii by step, tha patiaat la enlis^htened 

>s to hia cwm parejiaoid nweheiaiatta* FiPi4a ta being 

un<sx*itlol«able and always In tha n.^h% tma% be gi^adu* 

ally replaaed fey piplda i« baing able to r%m abave 

hia <itm raaobanisJiia and cj?ifcict«a M-aiaalf 1 prii^e ift 

being atrang enaii^ to admit aoijie waateQaasea and ei*raa« 

Vk 8ha«*ld ia 9i8de %^ lindayatand that ha. has been 

vlafeiala^4 ^y t»fi'a9)»8sl-0ua jparaea wbioi galhad control 

over hla pi'opei? aalf* Ijui?in$ the ootUi^ae of theae 

talks the physielftft ahiouid freely oonfaaa his own 

weakneases and errors, the patient being treated 

aa an eq\ial. . 

(ii) 6ormany « * 5*he laat ten yeara 
ol* (Jerttart hlatoJ*y shfiuld b0 interpi»eted a a a violont 
iftyao tioua fever, a |>aaaeaaion of t)^ spirit, whieh 
took hold of tie peop1.e aa soon aa they gave oai? to 
ibe faiae prophata of F*aaciaiB« 

, A aerlea of ai-tlclea, edltoriaXs, eeaaya and short 
baoka ahoiaid M;^wyitteft noi» by Oormaha in this oonntry 
(Thojoaa Mann, Reihhold Niebuhr, fooj^ater, and othei?a)| 
^aicled poaalbly W siiggeationa tt^ psyahlatsi'ista/ 
to be pubiiahad ih design newspapers and diatribu^d 


- 51 - 
"^iaajfa o?is<5atlaXljr •-p^^haj^f aigaed % ^ apiade plume 

' * . • • • 

truil* In tiiBOi tftjs ilaja;, dol\4tiomS| fefelK^&ei'i^i end 
ofi»fi« of the Ha;^a. &*i&ti^l4 i»» ]?<s^l«v©Q efe-feotivcij? 
i)* )aiat;6*^(s«iX aeqiAifiadf * l^iSr O^iifjaa people 8i&o«ld be 
iaali«' %(i la^deratjaad^ tfaat ^K^ *oi^l4 m^HM ^^m m 
i*awifetli4^ and \ia&fi^j?y rlfetJiDts 6f tastittetm^l feil*eea* 
Tb» AlXioa sbimld b^ awg?5««|iiiawa ^JflSttgh t6: admit 
thai** oira on»©re and aladeods* 

. 5^ (a) gourth Step , *> The pctle^fe' should l>Q 
Insooiated In s group . 

, (i) ihdlvld ua 1 pa raftoid « <» &vlftg 

attaiftdd a moaa-uire of satlef action by wiftftlag the 

p4gpa6t and friendship of hla phplclan aiid theft havlttg 

galood aom© ittStght aed coGtreli th® pc^tiont la readj^ 

€oS? glpoup th(^j?ftpsr* £#atai?^ ho catt b^ perattadod t© 

4©ili outaldd gi?oupst. (jj:^duallf ha must lo^ro to taka . 

ht0 pla<§d and crOopoJ^fetd m an oqiiai feaslS with othera* 

fh* group hfii joiaa ahould hfi'v^Q a goal# 



- 52 - 


(il) Qermany .^ If Germany is to 
^e converted,' it is of the utmost importance that 
aome strong end efficient super- government be estalv- b 
lished as soon cs possible, providing a new world 
conscience , that her people can respect. As said above, 
Germans anjist have somethifig to look up to - a God, 
a Fuehrer, an Absolute, a national ideal. It can 
not be a rival nation, or a temporary alliance of 
nations. It must be a body - a strong body with 
a police. force - which stands above any single state. 
A supranational symbol would. eventually attract the 
deference that is now focussed upon Hitler. Lacking 
such a symbol, many Germans will certainly fall into 
a state of profound disillusionment and despair. 
At the proper time Germany should be insocieted as 
an equal in whatever le6gue or federation of nations 
has- been established, 

. prom here on ,t he therapy of a single paranoid 
personality fails as an analogy^ principally because 
the German people will not be in the position of a 
patient who comes willingly to the physician's office. 
. The Nazis will be in no mood to be educated by their 
enemies. ^ Furthermore it would be very presumptuous 
of us to try it. The most that the Allies could do 

'^^^^^^i^'^^/ry'^f^'^y- :■- 

, > ■■ --^A;- '^ -\- -'■■ •'"^"•;^;:p:?55^^^ 

- 53 - 

;w«?ul^ ^Ji to eloae oil schools a nd universities, until 
^ ^Oti*faao$8t teachers and fedultles hsd been 
X^deiim3.H4» 'Phfl f^reatest problem will he In dealing 
wltli a whol« gi^merdtion of brutalized .end hardened . 
yOUSg N«»i«* (Perhaps exhibition games of soccer^ 
io^^tbaXl, Isei'OSse end baseball be tve en American 
an^. English regiments would servo to introduce ideas 
of fail* play tad sportsmanship; but much else must 
be dO»d * l>y Ortrmen educators . ) 

fCii«.the eofiveraion of Germany the. most effective 
agenor. wili ^^ some form of world federation. With* 
im tMa ^^ Allied Vl6tOirr «iU have no permanently 
ltt]>ort&i3t oeiJdeilU0n<ses« ' : ^ 




^ ^:^'f^'^r;-^yi^rr^^i^-{i,^^^^^ '■■ 



sm^tm m 

HltXey the mn -^ tp^ €^]tx pBse History 


w* H*; ©^ .^essftSQ 

.i-V"*: • 

i^pSS'^' ' 


, 7 

^^^f^^'j-t'.-'- ;' 

••• ,1. 





- 54 - 


ariiM TM ms ** iroTES pot a cyi^ mmowt 
w> «• li. ir«j?6ott 

qphfi j^tu?p0S^ ot tiila pat©a? ia to bring togethea* ^ 
la bi*l0f f ftm i*ttat)*ia imeim alSfotit Adolf Hitloy aa 
a aau* f©f-lf altl#a atl*a%e^st8 eould iieer "Inslda 
aitX#^* att^ adapfe ifaaU? *tfafigy io what they find 
tlie«*t* It i« Itikit tim% tfte tHitoing of the war would 
%& Speeded/* tt sn£st fe« a^lttdd, to begin with, that 
tha intH^iaoie* dH^l© aea^lia i personality would 
fee diffitait etiOtigh^te! ilisj?f^«|- >«ero the subject present 
and ooopepatieg; ii thd tisfc* But there are two furtfaiif 
dlfflQulti^S to 1i# fa6f4« ^ 0as nruat attempt both to 
select out of th$ great fijasa of material which has 
txeen *ritteil ab&ut |titi^» that^ which appears to be 
objective reporting aud^ then further to reconstruct 
his personality on the basis 6f this very inadequate 
psychological data* We have, of course, as primary 
source material. Hitler 'sf own writings and speeches 
and these tell ua a good deal. Though we must admit, 
therefore, at its beginning that the nature of our 
analysis is ve*y tentative and that in many instances 

FTjr, ,_^ .*v^-^-'^^'''A^:'^^T??^*^"^Vj?<^F25^-*> •. ^ -'. '^:- 

;- ' .., .J .55 - 

itliie^ *re dx4«M, it la no moiMi t^ntetK?* tlsaa the 
psyelkdlogiocil p«fl piotiarod which thd't&feit thdt&aoliretf 

m aoy case atudy one lauat begin "by ftaking who 
the auh^eet i», whenoe he coimei who were hia forheara* 
Heiden (S) ^eaentd .t!«p moa* reliable genoalogy nvpil- 
abXe* Btere we note only oertoiu important pointa. 

SitXer'a foxier ^ AiOie, wae born the illegitimate 
a on bt Iteria Anna' Sohieklgafuber in 1857 in .the village 
of Spital, f0 was auppoeed to be the a on of Johann 
Oeorg Hiedler^ However^ to his fortieth yepr,^ Aloif 
bojce the name of hia mother Sohicklgrtiber. Only 
then^ when Oeorg Hledle^ waa (if atill alive )2 
eighty- five yeertf of nge, and thljrty-five yeora nfter 
the death of hia mother, did he trke the noma Hitler < 
the maiden name of his mot her- In- law • As Heiden aays, 
"In the life history of Adolf Hitler no mention is 
ever made of. the grandparents, on his. father's side* 

1 January S, 1877 

^ There seems to be no record of hia death. 



^. Ik. ; 

% * 

flit ^« tails t^v**'iai?3.y l^i?#r walr ^o W^ pother '• 
jt^m^opa* fli»rt. fiiS?f raaay. im^m 1si> suggest; thot 
A<$#iJf ajl,H9a?«» g^^iiOfat?^!? wa« apt lif^ibpnn Ocorg HledUl»» 
* 60 ^fcBdwa rmn^ (i| tK 7b« ea^^atorti oo both 
sidee 0# %h6 f eraiiy w^«*« ^6»eat t'^'fl* ^^ ^^ dl»triet 
of W|iidi>^tartai| id^JaXf iXiltei*atse and very inlrt*ed 

Al^ii Si-ti9i*# «t Tl?«t ft e^bbieJ?, had by the cg« 
«»r fert^ a6hi«v«d tha pOUitlon of'ftn Austrian cu#tftBi 
^rli.ftial* t^ adue^tioa Jfor tfel* poeltlon wc» the 
©oet*'|.but4«»a Pf hie rlret mfej AlSha Glaali who, fifteen 
yo0r9 h4# Sdfiioi?! di^ i<l 1883* gls second wife, , 
whom he warrled six weeUii loteaf* died In a yen r< and 
three »<>ath« ifiter, an ^<»«mary "J*, J.88S (5^ he marrifd 
Klcta po«Xjj3lit ft dtfttaat «otisln* 

In ft|>^0«j?taoe Heidea has ^coinpered Alois to 
iilndenbm'g. (i), Gunther (5) describes his picture 
as showing a big, round, hairless skull? small, 
sharp* wicked eyes; big bicycle- handle nous to Chios ; 
and heavy chin. He was a hcrsh, stern, ambitious < 
and punctilious men (5; 8), 

Alois' wife, Klara, Is described (5) as being 
a toll, nervous young woman, not as strong as most j, 
peasant stock, who ran off to Vienna as a girl to 

; ^r-^sfr^ j.-:t:,«*F Jiji ^:^''L v^ . -\ ^ 

- 57 - 

retiirn aft#» t«a yiiii^i (* <J«»tni e«e«p&d« for one 
in heir acwiai «tiitti|i)#. S8» dodtei* (1) describes he j* 
in-her 0iirl]f tbviUn t$ ttiXX, irlth t>a*b«nlsh hair 
e(«atly pX«itdd» fl Xd»g o^l f&09 6nA heatttlfully 
eicih:>esilYO gy«y hX^ ^yei, A itfilfl$f| Modest, kindly 

Addlf llt>l6i>« li«i^ Ifl l$0tg fts fftl* ea can be 
aacertaiflnd*^ Has Aloli • i'lfth tshild, the third of 
his own Ji&thes» tmt th« tllf»t t^ lt*e more than two 
years *^ fhia i^ n^etuXd s«ett «0S fi large factor in 
channellllig th« p%ftt aff$«tldli for Adolf which all 
the eYideaot 80di8ti t6 dho« shi bdre him. In retiirn^ 
Adolf, who fwiredand opposed hi$ father ^* as he 
himself admitg «•« gave all his affection to his 
mother, and' wtuifl she diad of canee|> iA 1903 he was 
prostratad wltsli gfief (8; Sj 1), 

Adolf aa d boy and youth was soDiewhat tall, 
sallow and old for his age, with largo melancholy 
thoughtful eyes# He was neither robust nor sickly, 
and with but the. usual, infrequent ailments of a. . . 

Heiden points out that the tincertain details of 
Hitler* a family have had to be collected from stray 
publications, that Hitler is reticent to the point of 
arousing suspicion, about his life story (8)« 

* Aloi8» children we^e Alois, 1882 (son by first wife); 
Angela, 1883 (daughter by second wife)r Oustav, 1885- 
1887; a daughter, 1886-1889; Adolf, 1889; Edmund, 
1894-1900; Paula, 1895 or 1896 (children by third wife). 


e0wa©ia ft^<l 6«<?ia3?al ^Uef (9) feufe his OdCtor acya 
«8i«(",m» Hta if99t<iei%ionii mm iiwih eo irero free -* 
\?l5lk«^ tn tbi. JBduiatseipat owtaaialiat la tfae penuto^s, end 

About M&i^«>"e©?lf idtjicfttiOfii Wd know little 
except y>hB% be bii&»el# ttlU mi -* that he e^rly 
«rnt«d to M RB ajrtlst}. that this, oiitroged his father, 
irh0 atetEily dfttejuiiiied t^ laeke « g^od civil servant 
pt hiai; thttt thttt vc« 6 pferpetual struggle between 
tb^ twojs with hia niothel* aiding with Adolf and finally 
sending him. of f to Vie&na tp complete bis art education 
when hia fathes? died,. BXOapt for history and geography 
trhlch caught hit ijaaginfttion he neglected his studies, 
t<i find in Vienna, whos be. felled his art examination, 
that hia lack of formal education was a barrier to 
entering the architectural school # 

At the age of nineteen, when hia mother died, 
he went te Vienna to spend there three lonely and 
miaorable years, living In "flop- houses" (7), eking 
out a living by begging, shoveling snow, peddling 

^ A Gorman author of Indian stories. 

S This in contraat to Hitler' a own account of himself 
as a bit of a yoiang tough (9)« 



l«bo^» of any S6H« 9|]^e liid iddfiit 'bd^^n t« ^fjrital^ 
lifi#» biii fi»tl'«>Sdttltlstti and dnti^SXavisnB/ hid a»tl- 
|d«a* «>f aXX «*ft«* t« 1912 h« «««* to' Muni d& ati<i 
tiiti^ mtf. '*i«it«jjueftidi? ai»tl8*^ ^l6«itt't |>oatcard painter, 
t6ohBi«aX ds^aftsnad and dccaalonal botise-palnter 
titiar managed to earn fioma sort 6f a living" (8, 25) • 
X% 1$14 bd ehliated in the army with great enthusiast, 
performed hla dutlea irlth distinction and bravery,'''^ tma 
woiinded, sent home to recover, and in liiarch, 1917, 
«aa back at the front. He waa aloof from comrades, 
iealoud In his duty, and very lonely. Through all 
the war he received no letter or parcel (8), 

The *ar over and with no home to go to. Hitler 
in 1919 was appointed an eapionage agent of the 
insxirgent ftetch^wehr which had just put'doim the 
Soviet Republic in Munich* Shortly thereafter he 
came in contact with Anton Drexler and what was to , 
become later tht Ha zl party had Its beginning. 
Further than this it is not necessary to follow 
Hitler *s political history. It is too well known 
and the basic structure of his personality was already 

7 Militcry awards were: Regimental Diploma for 
Conspicuous Bravery, Military Cross for Distinguished 
Service, Third Class, The Black Wounded Badge, and 
The Iron cross. First Class. (8). 


. ■ , -60 ♦ . 

formed* Lcter years hsve only brought to fruition 
latent tendenclea and laid the final product open 
for the world to wonder at. We must' now turn to a 
closer exawiriatlori of this structure, 

Portraits or moving pictxires of Hitler are corinion 
enough, yet it is well to draw attention to various 
aspects of his physique • To most non-Nazis Hitler 
has no particular attraction. He resembles a second- 
rate waiter. He is a smallish man, slightly under 
averags height. His forehead is slightly receding 
end his nose somewhat incongWEoa with the rest of 
his face. The latter is somewhat soft, his lips 
thin,, end the whole face ejcpreasionless * The eyes 
are a neutral grey which tend to take on the color 
of their momentary surroundings,® The look tends to 
be storing or dead crnd locking in sparkle. There is 
aa essentially feminine quality about his person 
which Is portrayed particularly in his strlkiingly 
well-shfij)^4 ond expressive hands (2} 8; IS; et alV)*»a monner is essentia^Lly awkward ond all 
hi-sl mo^«»ients jerky except perhaps the gestures of 

%his t^ct has caused an amazing number of different* 
deaoriptiona of hia actual eye color. 

- 61 ^ 

Ms handa. He appears shy nnd ill cit eaae; in dompany 
and seems seldom capable of carrying on conversation. 
TTsiially he deelairas while his associates listen* He 
often seems listless .and moody # This is in marked 
contrast to the dramatic energy of his speeches and 
his skillf\xL play upon the emotions of his Vast 
audiences^ every changing mood of which he appears 
to perceive and to turn to his own purposes g At 
times he is conciliatory^ at other times, he may burst 
into violent temper tantrums if his whims are checked 
in any way ^(16) • 


A t tl tude 8 t owa rd Na tur e , Fa t e , Re 1 igi oh ^ -^ First 
and last words are often significant, tteljti Kampf 

' - i * : 

begins with a sentiment of gratitude to Fate, and 
almost its last paregrnph appeals for vindication 
t6 the aoddess of History, however, all through 
the book the]pe ere reforehces to Etcmei NattiPe, 
Providence, and Destiny. "Therefore, i believe today 
1 cm acting In the sense of the Almighty creator: 
by warding off the. Jewe 1 am fighting for the Djpfd'd 
work* (9, 84). This feeling of being directed by 
greet forces outside one, of doing thd Lord's work. 
Is the essence of the feeling of the rellglcutf ntystlc^ 


No matteJ? how pagan Hitler 'a othiool and aoolal Id^Hias 
may be, fchey have e quellty computable to t^eligloiMl 
exporienoe. Moreover, all through hla aata and vapda, 
both spoken and written, la thla extreme exa'gga^tlon 
pf hla own self-importance -» he tJ^uly faala hla 
diylne miaalon (16.) > even to the p6lnt of foroaeelng ■ 
a .martyr fa death (16)* 

Aa far aa outhorljpod religion ia conodraed. 
Hitler recognized both Ita atj?ength and weakheaaoa 
(9; Ijg) and adopted freely wheteyer he fonhd aarvlee** 
able for hia own ends* T*hat he strides dOtm Pretestant 
and Catholic alika la dua merely ta the^onv^fitipn 
that theao religiona are but old huska and muit glye 
wayto the new (9)» 

'SPpward conaclenoe hia. attitude ia a dual oh«r. 
one the ona. hand he repudiates it aa an' ethical 
guide, heaping contempt on it as a Jewiah ihvention» 
a blamish like ciroumciaion (15). He adorns as 
fopla thoaa who obey it (16). But in matterf of 
action he waita upon hia inn.oi* voice, '♦Ttoledi t' have 
the inher inoorruptibla oonviotion, thla la the ^Pli^ 
tioa, X do nothing.. #1 will not act, 1 w^li wait' 
no matte jB^ what hcpgena. But if the yoi^a fj^s^tfV * 
thea J kfiow the tim haa ^onie to aot" (14^ i&l)* • 
Like Soofataa ho liatana to hia feaimon* 

- 6$ 

Hltler*a Attll;iJ49 toward fower ooct gig 'ti9et4. for 

I I . J • I " I I - rt [ n ■ II I I ' ' ■' ' " ' ' n li _ _ ■ .1 r ' I I I ■ I i V I I I I .- I J il l 

Aggros 8 tpD <> Tq the Germon people and the wQi?ld et 

Xcrge^ Hitler appeors as a man of tremendoiie strength 

of will, determination, and. power ^ Yet those who ere 

or have heon close to hltt (e»g^, 16) Imow th^thd Is 

oonsclous of being powerful and Impresses others as 

auoh only at certain times ^ When he Is declaiming 

to a great throng or when he is op one of his 

solitary walks through the mountains, then Hitler Is 

oonsclous of his destiny as one of the great and power- 

ful 6f the ages • But In between these periods he 

feels humiliated and woak^ At such tinges he is 

irritated and unable to do or decide anything;^ It 

is these feelir^gs of his own weakness that no doubt 

have determined to a great extent his ideas on the 

educatloii of youths All weakness must be knocked 

out of the new German youth, they must be indifferent 

to pain, have no fear of death, must learn the art of 

self-oommandj foy only in this way car3| they become 

creative Godmen (15) t Hitler ^s feolingi! of weakness 

and power probably also determine his attitudee towards 

peoples and natidfis. Per those who are weak, or for\ 

■fioiw HfiBOa do; ftot display; j^owdr^ "hd bpfi only cortteifflpti® 

® "^y gl^eat paiiUcaX''o|»portliiilty li.fs in my dellbf?:%td 
U8d of poiver ^t o titte imati there ere still illusiohS' 
abrocd 60 t.o the forces that iftoiald history" (16^ 271). 

- 64 - 

l^br those i»ho ore st4*ong he hs* f'eellhga of teapect, 

fecr, subinlsalv«ji«ea (4;^? 16). For the K?it«lii of 

the great wee period "he hpd great respect (9), T>«t 

only contempt for the powerlesa Indian re Voiutloncrlea 

who tried to oppose 3H.tiflh imperial powetf (9^). 

For the masses ovea» -whom he htos sway. he feels 'tuiily 

contempt. He compares- t^em to -a woman whoi prefers 

to submit to the will of stsmeone ^^trongor (9)» He 

harangues the crowd at night whon they are ti^^ and 

less resistant to the will ;Of another (9).. Houses 

every psyohologlisea txlolc to break the., will of an 

audience • He 3»kps »ae pf all the cohditions which 

mai$Q In the Qerooo pa^ople fo:r a ictoging for automissloa, 

their flti3a«tle«; their feelings of' Xooeliaeas (^)« > 

fl^ underatapds his subjects T>eo<nifle they are SO like 

hitJiaelf (4). 

Olosely related to his at titudo towrrd powej?,. 

and opi^ of the Jail sic elements of Hitler's per^nollty 

struoture, t4 a deep;»'lying need for aggresaicsi, 

ddatructlOtt;^ brutality. It was with hia in phrntasr 

at least in childhood" (9-5 • And thare id d.Yideu(j« . , 

^^ It is interesting to. note: tteeit the wnr agoli^st. 
Bi?it&s;ti appe<^j?a Qttly to, have .l^i'Oken out Ijeeauae 
. .Httler was «oovlnood that she would n (St end could 
iiot H^laat tfto fitf^ngt^ of the denaan ar«ed forces. 


of it from hla days in Vienne (7) . We knew: too C9) 

that tb(9 outbreak of the fii^st groat war was a tremendo-ua' 

ly thrilling experience f or hixn. Since the war we 

have seen his adoption of so- colled "^communist'* 

methods of dealing with hecklers (9), the ipurder of 

his close friends, his brutality toiwird' the Jews^ 

his deatiniotion of one sinall hrtion after another, 

and his more recent major war against the rest of 

the world, . But this element of his personality is 

so patent that it hardly need« dddtanonting« 

flttler*8 attitude towa rd the Jew& and towprd 

I Vn I ■ » I III I II I ■ ii n I $ II Ji t , II n' / I I II 

ftQQB#-^ AD^;;1^392ilti8iD iB not on tuQcommon thing and 

11^1 "i 'I II I a 

Europe hajj a long history of it but, as has been pointed 
out, "in the case, of Httlcr^ the Jew he 6 been elevate^d, 
so to speak^ to a degree of evilness Which he had" 
never befbrt obtained^ (10, 8). That this hetred is 
of a more than usual pathological nature is suggdated 
by the morbid oomiection wb^cii Hitler mekes between 
the Jew cod. disease, bieoddiSdcie, syphilis (d), 
and filthy excre«e«ncea of. all aorts. The Jew 
in fact is. opt oven e beast, h4 is a creature tsutsido 
nature* (1$)*, He is at the root of all thlnga etril 
not only 111 Oeriiiaiiy but eleawhere and only through 
hi« deatunietion may th(^ world be aa^ed* It it at 
thiJi i^ointi, too, thfit Mtler** feelinga about race 


- 66 . 

find axprdsaiofi. For him there is en inaejf' emotioaal 
diMjnaction between sex, ajrphliis, blood liufmHty'^ 
Jewis^esa end the degeneration of pure, hdfiith]r; 
and virile ipeclfil atroina. Like the need f6r 
dggreaalon, hia fenr of the tointlng of blood i« fi 
mojor el^iJiont 16 Hitler 'a j^eraonolity structure. 

Hitler's Atti tude ' toward Am *' Thet Hitloi?»8 
attitude^ toward s^x la pothologidal is already clear 
fi»om whpt has "been aaid abova. The best sources 
we have do not, however, tell ua explicitly what It 
la that is wriohg with Hitler 'a aex life* Prom the 
feet t^at his' cloao associate,. R?>bra, as* well e» many 
of the o'erly Nazis *ere bomoaexuala it hea been a 
matter of gossip thet Hitlei* too la affected in this 
way. All rellabie sources, however, deny that there 
la any evidence whatever for such an idea (8)* In 
fact, Hitler appears t6 beve no close men friends, 
no intlmotas at ©11, Rfihm iWta the- otSy one whom be 
addressed with the' intliiiote "du" (5) and It la 
reported the t no oho has succeeded since the latter 'a 
doa-tk to such a ■pokltioa of latitocoy. 

txi' regai^d to' Women, the reports pre conflicting. 
Most o^' the recent "books- by newspaper nen (e,g,, S) 
st'ross Hitler *t' asceticism, his dialnterast in women. 

B-f •■ . .s 

«. 57 -. 

' ' ' ' • 

Howovei*, Selden (B) doetments hla Ipvo affairs, end 
HBhfsoh tVh Sts?«isai3r (18), t?nd Rauschriittg (15) have 
oonaiderQbl« to sey about his attitude toward the 
oppoaite aeaf«. As far as can lie oacertrlnedf. It 1& 
oompletely locking. in= r^spiact,. evon contemptuous (71^^; 
it la Oppbi^tttolatle (18; XS) and In the actual searanl 
relationship there is aoioethlng of a perverse notT:y?e 
along with a peculiar enslavement to the. pdrtner of 
hia' choice (8) . ' It la; certaiij thrt many women find 
Hitler fascinating (16;; 71 and that he likes their 
company, ^t it ia alao true fehpt he hrs he-ver morrlod,. 
attd ila every love affair the bi^eak waa mode, hot by 
Hitler, but by the ledy eonoerned (8)». In one cftaa, 
that df hia hlecii, Oell,, there was real tragedy I'n^ 
volved for either he murdered- her In a fit of paaalon,, 
according to Straaaer's evidence (13),. or he so abased 
and upset he*- thrt she committed suicide (8), Finally, 
one' must mentloii again hia frenzied outburst against 
syphilis in llteifi ICampf (9) aa if the whole eormatt' 
nation -were o veat putrifying hotbed of this loath- 
some de'^eaae. Hoieoh»k atot<j»ents (8) thpt "Isheite 
la 8<«ftethl^g wrottg" witli Hitler'* sox life is surely 
im eloquenti underatctemont*' 

fO-. , 


"'A V' 

68 - 

* . Hitlef .• 3 n ee<S to Talk; » This rather obvtoua 
no$^ la worth noting at thia point, aftar what hap 
Jfiiat baen aald abova.-''^ Bvei* ainoa Hitler ♦« aiaeovary 
of hla faollity as a 8peakar,'hl« own people and the 
wor^ have been deluged with hia woi»d$ • The manbeif 
orape^ehea la large, varying in length from one ani$ 
a half *o two hours, though there are aeveral o^ 
thr«in and even fovir hours' duration. In private, 
morepver, tltler ooldoa ponve^^ses, foS? eaoh individual 
whott he addressea ia a new audience t<S be harangued, 
th tta momenta of depreasion he must talk to prove 
to hitoaelf his own strength and in moments of 
exaltation to dominate othera (l^K 

Hitler»a Attit ude toward Art .* though Hltler^s 
father intended hiib a ilvll servant, he himself 
oraved to be an artist and his failure to be recognliied 
as such by the Vienna sobool waa one of his most 
traumatie experiencea (9), Aa' ptihrer hla intereat 
in .art continues and he shows distinctly favorable 
attittjdea toward music, painting, and architecture* 

A* is well known, Wagner la Hitler's favorite — 
we mig^t almost ^ay only ,— composer. At twelve 
he wai dllptivated by Lohengrin (9), at nineteen in 
Vienna he waa championing the merit a of Wagner aa 

• ' " ' ' '''-''^^''.r'-'<«»'5r^'/<r«^'^,'ri¥«r' 

r-.v.t' *^*' 



ttgaiikltt Kft^iirt (7)^ ttn^ ad Fuhx^di^ h^ had tt«dn Di# 
Mdi8tfty»in^y o^«r & htmd^sa tiaidd (1SI)» td kBdws 
all df «ngA«»ta ae6t^« (19) fiL»a It) thdii* i'an^ltien 
IBA gdti ainQtioA&l' ]^dleaa« aie^ inapifwtidn f«fi^ his 
aetioni. flia iairt«i» eic^le%> fadlinga abdut aexi 
t&t*, hi« 'ftttitudaa ^©ir6i?a fo^ «jad di-ifik/ 
all fl2)d atittulua tnd taltifdi^aindnt ift thd plotii 
paraofti,. aftd tb«ii»t. <>f hia- fair&t-it* cfirapoaai*. Ife 
19 i]QtaiS9atliig, foi» exaa^ldi tb&tj Sltleip has efaoftett 
Nutfinbairg, thf towa irtiieh Wagiaej« pei^sonlf'itd in 
fiiattS St&ha/ at tha official alta of the ttaatln^ ot 

linig»«i<*» Infludlida fiwraii!* lltlar axteiidd beyond 
the ra^lsi of siuaie bd that ot lltsk>ati»t*«* Among 
tha PuhWJ«»r ftvoi»lt# i-aadlflgd ara Wageei?»4i pDlitleal 
vritingit aod oottaelottaly ot» tj|i<;o»aeiO(ialf h» has 
copied iriLgn«r*tf tturgid and botot^aaMii mkm^P with a 
reattltlhg ityla «hieh eoeordltig to fiildah bftdh 
tratiiiforflia ^a living 'aentenoe into a eoAftised h^ap 
of hmtt ijadi|t«stible worda" (8, 308), 

' Xti tha fiald of painting there are t*o matters 
to cdfiaidar «>« Hitler*» ourn work and hia attitude 
toward the work of others. As regards the former, 
we have evidence that during his Vienna days Hitler 
showed little ability except for copying the painting 

11. Prom the analytic point of view this may well be 
interpreted as a compensation for sexual difficulties. 




of otherrfl (7)*, Seme, of th,« *or4c8 %mt «^ txt*ttt»< 
/l«>wavaj?i» airplay aoja* fl^l^ |'a4? oj?$«nl«jiWoi» aad 
'Qolor, 1jljo\j|jb 1?b«i?e t« not?hi«g oHglJMil.. IftWJjf .of 
l^« paklntl»ga '$^^m * pap««iOovip»*iott, il^te^y^lii^ «*««*■•, 
old jfxjiwai aad wifeh «jftp1S3f d«f<ilat« j?Xi6^; f««. of 
%mr& ^mt&iii p.9(»p1q« O^bft QOnMlwIadt iHi^lmaT^d 4«9lSQi 
(jf th« |^'3t»ty li»dg5$ ftM flag sita fu*^ii!»ff.^^vtden»« 

otjbara* Hitler has suri'isundad hlmatlf with ijiiX4t«irjr 
pi4lii*i^« ©f all aoii^ts aojd *ltfe Bortt»«i4?4 of vaiP3f 
li;|aral and Qxplloits nudea (ifj 1S)» A<^ hla oowaaiad 
dai^s art ha a isean .pjJ^ged of It a aaditfoiais, and 
almaaltO qualitiaa a«»a atJ?aaaa<l Inat^ad* 

. it ia iri ja? ohltacti*i-a that Hitler « a artlatlo • 
intafaat fiada its |j?aa.t«st eiifeUt* H« -apahda a, 
iraat <a«al of %imi m9v ajfehlUaoli^'a dtoaigaa and all 
tiB^(^j^t«nt aewnaa ^utldiata aod attauwanti mi$% ^i approirad 
^ "by i4>ffl« Masaivamaas, expanaivaoeaa, al?a, end claaala 
'd«si^ a]*a tha <|tualltiea whlah Hitleir atraasea and 
tLppiffivea !» tha huildlAga of the neur Garmany. Hla 
4ev«aty*fl««*»j£c!0t«bi»0a(i motor roads i tha aonferenco . 
.$ro\j0aida at Hutattborgi and his retreat at Berchtesgadan 
fti^a all eafeaa^laa of tfcta^e emphaaaa* . 

«:«;;^'»;rr''^ j^-^vr'' ►•<->r;r^«»c->?:' i^^ 

- n - 

by niiay wi^ltara (6; IS), Hltlei? hioiself* accordlflg 
t& fiftuiiclmlDg (1«)V accr«4it>t hi« vegeterianiaoi and 
hi$ abatinei^cd fx^oA t^obaooo and alcohol to Wagner's 
InfXueftca, He a»et»tbaa nmcb of tiba decay, of oivillza* 
tion to abdominal poiaoQ^llg th^j^^ygh exceaaea* This 
a$cetlatiii of Mtler'a ie all thi| nojre 8tH-klng.aqiong 
a people who, on the whpie, $0^4' heairy, eateip* and fond 
of drinking. It la itorthy of note, however ♦ thftt at 
timea Hitler l« not averae to Q0j?t8in ty|>ea,of over* 
indtilgence. He 1*1 foi? example i exoeaal-veljr foad 
of aweeta,: 8«eetneat8| and pea try (7j 1^), and will 
eonaiane . them in lar^^ q^antitiea*. 

ttttler'a i»eotiliar Abilitiea «* Hitler, the lanedu* 
cated, ia'nev^rtheleaa ft man of unuaual ability, 
partic-alarly in eertaih areaa where formal edvcatioh 
la of little Wlue and even in areaa where It ia 
auppoaed to be important . More than once we find 
thoae who know 'him (e.g.^ Rauachning (16) atreaaing 
hia extraordinaS*y ability to take a complicated problem 
and reduce it to very aimple terma. It ia hardly 
nepeaaery to doetmient Hitler* a ability to iinderatand 
and .make uae of the weakneaaea of hia opponenta, hia 




.''^ i- 

' / 

ibiXity to divide them and stl'lke the« 6q« Tjy q^i 
hi* tense of timing so as to atrlkff at the most 
opportwoe moment* It It oertaln^ boi»eye3P« thiit 
these abilities of Hitler's Iwve 4eflnil^t# Umltaitloos ♦ 
^t2«er has' beftoxo© more, and more initiated (l$) from 
oantflLQt with what Is aatwRlly oo<?\»«^riii^ apd th»Ml 
h*i lasiAfflclent; or incsorreet data on i^ oh %d b«»« 
hi:» 4eolsioos» Jlore.over* his Own framt OJP P«fer«n^« 
la an lans atlsfactory suld« to aji' iattdei»#*;aAdl&g of 
peo^iei outslcis the ISurppefih, milieu* H«^ bati coa*- 
se^uenttlf , f re<^ueiitly mls.i«i4er«tood hotfe apitlsh 
aS(| Americiin points o.f vle-w trifeh unhappy. »p0i*lti to 
his own program of expajjsloh* 

Overt Evidence of ttalad Jus tmeht « * Certain facts 
Symptomatlo of maladju$tment ;have already "been men- 
tibnedj, such as his peculiar relatlohdhip to women* 
Here there have to be added others of a less specific 
nature. Hitler suffers from severe incomnia and when 
he does sleep has violent nightmares (16) ♦ At times 
he suffers frtan hallucinations, often hearing voices 
on hie long solitary walks (16).- He has an excessive 
fear of poisoning and takes extreme precautions to 
guard against it bo,th Ih hla f ood and in his bedroom 
(Id). Here the bad must be made only in one specific 

■rF. . - J ^^ 


wky .(is)* M^ tAimat irox>l£ steadily, but; with expXoislve 
cmtburaii of ttotiliritjr or not At all (X6; 8). Sven 
th« AKtollest d0elal(^a d«fiEaAd9 gi^eat affort Aisd ha 
b^k to work tiimdalf up to it* Whet) thwtrted^ ha wiXX 
bi»aa)e out into ao iiysta.rioaX tantxnsa^ aooXdini ini 
higb-pitehad toods^ fdaming at tha mouthy and atampiiig 
with tjoconti'oilftd fuj?j (i$)» Oi^ sev^rai dcc^aions, 
wton^ ai) iiBpoi!>taiit apoeeh waa dua, ha haa stood ailant 
bafora .hiau audiana^ and than waXkad out on thexa (X6). 
1]& tha eaae ot ai( leaat one <intat^atlonaX bx«Ofldcast 
ha was ataddailiX:^ and inajcpXicabXy 6ut oft th# #iJi?« 
FlneXXy^ thera ia HitXax*'8 thi*aat t»Q oosnait auicida 
It the Nazi p^rts ia daatroyad op thi| pXana ot the 
(lerm^h Raioh fai!^ (5), . 


Traits 4 •• The sohieold temperament ^ one such as Hltlei?*S| 
which combines hoth a sensitive^ shy, and Indrawn natuHf 
with inhibit lona t>t fee Xing toward othera, and at the 
aame time. In way of. compenaatlotii vloXent aggresalve- 
neaa^ caXXousnasa, and brutaXlty^ from one point of 
▼lew of conatltutlonaX paychoXogy Is usxiaXXy aasoclated 
with a. particular type of physique. It Is difficult 
from the aort of photograph avalXabXe to cXaaalfy 

- n 

HitX#^'d fhyj9iqu$ ^d(surdteXy« Id pfobabXf falla ixi 
E5?dtfl6hiner*s ©thlatlc l^gj*6up tbotigh ^^^rglng on th« 
pyknic CIX). Thia vouXdi pXttoa him in tha achlzopfaranlo 
grdi2|$ of teinpex<atndnta*' tti ta^oa of ShaX4on*a ayatett, 
ha la pirobabXy cXadaifiabXa aa a 443 with a conal^arabla 
dagi'da: &f $y)landi«(}8i0ii»phy, that is, an aaaentleXXy 
maaouXiaa body but ona ahoKring famlnitia^ eharacteriatiea 
•Xa0 (X7). / > 

, pi»obabXy iaoj*a itiitpoi'tant, howaYer, la the sociaX 
miXiau and tha faiaiXy alttiatioo In which HitXer graw up. 
Ifl a atrongiy patHarehal aoolety^. hia flithef .waa 
paJ?tiouXsi?'i^ aggiNaaix^e afld probabXy binitaX toward 
hla sen, AdoXf ; llhia wouxd produce an individuaX 
both very ^ubtniaalva' to authoi^ity and at tha same tima 
boiXlng Ovai* t»ith rebeXXiouaneaa to lt# . Further, we 
fe:now of^ thi axtreme attacteiiient wfelch HltXer had for 
hia mother f If, as seems most XikeXy, he hes never 
outgrown thia, 12 there might be a protest in hia 
nature against this ensXavement, which in turn might 
give rise to a deep unconscious hatred, a possibXe 
source of -frightfuX "unconscious rage.^-^ pinaXXy, 

*■ 1 ■ \ 1 - ■ : ___^_^.,.^_..____^,^, 

• , .• 

^^ Note HitXer'a frequent and unusuaX use of the woihI 
MbtherXahd for Germany (9). 

^^ HitXer's hatred of meat and Xpve of sweets ia 

said to be often found in cases harboring an unconaciOTia 

hate of the mother (X5). 

'■:-',-ri^-yiKJ--^fTJ'T^-,.}-'^^T^'^ f^C'-'' ^ ,.?:■■■■:-■■ ■ .■■■.•■■■■■ ,. • • '^ ■■- -.,,,■..,.■,■■ j...^T»./v-;;:-i7^;.;!%.r^>/.,,.-... ,..— :; • •• ,..: . • - * •■ ;•'v^?;;/i?r^rV^ 

75 * 

t;h« consistent fi|ilu|*e t^ftOhlevi his flUtiatie 
amfeltibns, his l9iasXln^«« ao^ poverty in Vieflnai his 
fai^ui^ to. arrlTS at. aiiy higha if status thea that of 
eorpot^l in his beXovad artt^ (a), aiX laust have . 
stiWttXated in highest degree whatever originai tendency 
there was toirtird hrtttaXity and destruetlvenese* ^ 
l?"he s»ttr»esa;f Hitier<s"Ahti»6einitisfli;« Anti- 
SeBltisfii was pfirt*of the soctsX wixieu in whleh tttXer 
^ew \ip* Be admits hlirweXf (9) thai he syolded the 
only Jewish boy St school and It Is known that antl* 
Serattlsia and. asc>tleiitt were strong la Oatholic 
ruraX ooBBBunlties in Burope-. tn Vienna, of' course, 
Hitler came In cdntaet with violent antl*Sea»itlc 
literature and It is at thld period that he claims 
hie deep-rooted= hatred tpv the Jrtfws was born (9)* 
1?h« ^♦theXogioal str^agth of thii hatred suggests 
that thei^ were ^ejPtaln psychological as we'll as 
cultural reasons for it* What they were we can only 
Btirmise but we 0*t| ll»t certain possibilities. We 
fenow that the name Hitler is a common Jewish one 
(8), that Adolf was teased about his Jewish appear- 
ance in Vienna,^^. There, is, too, the mystery of . ._..,. 

^* It Is interesting that Hitler's description of the 
first Jew to arouse his hatred is almost word for 
word the same as Hahisch's description of Hitler in 
Vienna (?)• 

Alois Hitler's true parentage which hift a<m may h«ve 
known. We alfo know that many of the people whe helped 
him, gave him food, and bought his palntinga were 
Jews.i^ To have to accept kindnesses from people he 
disliked would not add to his love of them* ^t 
there must he* more to it than this f^r Hitler's aiitl* 
Semitiam is bound up with hie morbid concern with 
syphilis and phobia over contamlnstioo of^ the blood 
of the Oetttiah race. This, therefore, leads to a 
disQussion of Hitler's theories. 

!$Ouroes of. Hi tlei'<s Theories of Ha ce and Blood .'- 
The concept of the superiority of the Aryaa race i«i, 
of course, not new with Hitler* Its grettJ exponent 
waa Houatoh Stewe^t Ch8mberl.aih*' In the writings 
«f Wsgrie? a-l»jO the; same c6»eeptio» is jixalted. Butf 
the eonjifcaot repetition of the ide* af 1>lood, pure 
bio04# and unto ieted blood. which occurs In Vein Kaapf 
©ftil« for a- moi?e than purely cultural explanation . 
Thla ift suggested ^11 the wore forcefully because 
of the association which Hitler makes between im- 
purities of blood which are due to disease (syphilis) 
and impurities in the blood of a superior race due 
to mixture with a racially inferior stock; further . 

^^ His rejection of the Jew may also stem from the 
rejection within himself of the passive gentle elements 
which are prominent in Hebrew-Christian thought. 

77 -. 

to th«i faoti ttattt h^'fiointd to th^ Jews as the source 
of beth. , 

How it 1$ knoim that syphilophobia often hd$ 
its wots In the chil4hdoa dlscoV^dfy of th^ nature of 
sesmsi eongre^s hstwsen the patents. With $ f^thei* 
who was an ilXegitiottite and poselhly of Jewish orlgtni^^ 
and a stirong mothei* fixation, suoh e diJooveff ^y the 

child Adolf nay «elX have laid the bdsis of a syiphilo^ 

. ■ •• ••*•* 

phobia which some adventure with 6 Jewish prodtii^ute 
in Viannn fanned to a full flaroe,^*^ Terrified by 
the fea^ of his own infection, aliL the hatred in his 
being is then d^ii^ected towaxxl the ^fews* 


Sltlei«*s pejpsonality stdm^ttii^e, though, falling 
withlis the nrevttsit i^nge^ tmf nm be deseHbed as of , 
thr p&2*ahold typtf^ #ith ileitis ion* of persecution and 
Of grandetuf« Vhii steiAs frotn a s^do-matochistic 
split in hit peifsonality (4) • integral with these 
altei?nating and opposed' elements in his personality 
are his fear of infection, the identification of the 

^^ The name Hitlel* la Jewlah as was pointed out#* 

^'^ This Is mere conjecttire and must be treated as 
such* But it Is the sort df explanation which fits 
known psychological facts • 


J'swi a» the aourtid of thitti Inf ^otitjflji *ftd $&m d«« - 
^angeaent of the aexwaX f\WciJloft wliieli mice* W« 
x*«iatlon8 tjo #hft op&0aitet «©x tt1anoi«»X Itt pafeiM^e* 

The drama and tragedy tf Hitler »i|Xi^« «^e tha 
psroje^tloh oiato tha world of i»ii om twier eonflileti 
aiid hia 6tteaj»ta to^'aolvt th^ia* The apllts. tft Hitlar*a . 
pei^aciiiAlity aeema alaarljr to-^t due to hia identlfica- 
tim both wllJh Mi tnother j whom hi i^aa^iotiately loVed, 
atidwltlj hta futher, whom hfe hfited and fearad, fhii 
dual aJDdk (jontradiQtorjf ldentlftcatlo« (th» ^ne la 
gentla, paaatve, femlainaj th« otha* hrutftl, aggraMtva, 
aaadtiline ) reaialta *^ whenever Hltlef M- ^l«yiQ$ the 
aggreaalve r01^ ** also in a d«e|i hati'ed and contaaipt 
for hi$ i»0thar and lova - and. a4i>i*'«tlon for hla 
father* fhla inner, ooof Hat id ei»t)ie"c ted into the 
world whera Oenwafty opmea to repreaant the-aiotheri 
ajid the law and #9 for a tiaar -*• th© Auatrian state< 
the Tathsr* ,J"U8t aa the father in the cause of hla 
mixed hlood, the a our ce of hia domination and puniah^ 
. ment, and of the restrictiona Of his own artiatic 
development; just as in the childiah interpretation 
of sexual congress the father attacks, strangle*, 
and infects the mother,, so the Jew, international 
Jewish capital, etc., encircle and restrict Oermapy^ 

th)?eateA find attack hef and Infect he 1> with linpurltles 
of blood. Out of the hatred of the fathei* and love 
of the mother^oame the desli>e to esve her. So Hitler 
becomes the savior of Gerinanif, wh6 clesnses her of 
infection, destroys her eneniies, breaks their eneircle- 
ment, removes every re$trii:tion upon her so that she 
may eatpamd Into new living space, uhcramped and un- 
throttles* At the same time. Hitler is cleansing 
himself, defending himself, casting off paternal domina- 
tl<>n and restriction. 

Hot ohly is the Pa the j* feared but he ie a source 
of jealousj^ for he possesses, at liaset in part-> the 
beloved mother. So he must be destroyed to permit 
cbmplete possession. The doatru'ctloh of the father 
is achieved symbolically by the destruction of the 
Austriea. state and oomplete domination and poasession 
of the mother, through gathering all Germans in a 
eeoQion ROloh* 

But the mother is not only laved but hated. Por 
she id weafe, besides hd is, enslaved to -her affections 
and she reminds hiia all too muoh, iA hit i*0t'6 da 
domiAant father, tt his oiii»n gentle sensl^i^d nature. 
So, though he depends ori the German people' for hia 
poait'ion of (ic^iolnanGe, he deapiaes and hatea thenii ' 


- 80 - 

ha dpmlna1;aa, them and, hecausa he fears hla v^rj 
love of them^ he leads them Into the deatruqtlve-i- 
ness of war where multitudes of them are destroyed. 
Besides, the Jewish element ip his father idantifica- 
tlon permits him to use all the so-called *• Jewish^ 
tricks of deceit, lying, violence, and sudden attack 
both to subject the German people as well as their 

To be dominant, aggressive, brutal is to arouse 
the violent protest of the other side of his nature. 
Only severe anxiety can come from this; nightmares 
and sleepless nights result. But fear is assuaged 
by the fiction of the demands of Pate, of Destiny, 
of the Polk-Soul of the German peopl^. 

The denouement of the drama fipproachea at' ev^ry 
aggressive step. The fiction of the command of Pate 
only holds as long as there Is success --greater and 
greater success to assuage the mounting feelings 
of anxiety and -guilt. Aggression, therefore, hfis a 
limitj it Q$itinot go beyond the highest point of 

succasa • Whati that is reaqhed, the personality 

•s*.. • . _ _ , . 

may coliLapse unde|^ the flood of its own guilt 

" . . <i , < . \ 

feelings *;?-^ It i&, therefore', quite poaalfclo that 

^^ that HttXei? id partly eohsblbue of tjhla we Ijnow 

froui hla own thireats of auicido and reference* to 
• dylnt fo** the, Oorman people '(9). 

W: ■ 

- 91 - 

Hitler will do awtty with himself at whatever moment 
Oerman defeat' beednea 8iiffied.ent enough to dastiroy 
the fiction of Pate which hag shielded him front the 
violence of his own gtiilt, fie my then tui»n upon 
himself the des true tlvsneisd whicth so lon^ hdd been 
channelled toward hiaf pdcpld an<5 their neighbdrd. 



X. Bloch, E. 
2, Dodd, M. 
3* Parcigo, L* 

4.. ' Proine, B» 
6. Haffrior, S. 


Collier* a , March 15, 1941. 

New York: Harcoiift, Brace, 1^59 .« 

New York: Conmltteb on NatlOEial 

Morale, 1941. 

New York: Parrar it Rlnebart, 1941. 

New York and London: Ba^'peri, 199<5. 

London: Seeker & Warbiaro, 194^. 

7. Hanisiab,..R. t WAS HITLER'S BUDDY. 

New Republic, April 5, 1939. 


, London: Conatable, 19S6. 

9. Hitler, A. MEIN KAMPP. 

New York: Reynal & Hltobeoek, 1959. 

10. Hitler, A. MY NEW ORDER. ' 

- New York: Reynal & Hltohcock, 1941. 

11. Kret9chmer,E. PHYSIQUE AND CHARAqTER. 

New York: Harcourt, Bi^oe, 1925. 

12. Krueger. t. INSIDE HITLER. 

* New York: Avalon Pre$J, 1941. 

Lewla, W. HITLER -CULT* 

London: Dent, 1959. 
Life, June 23, 1941. 




New Republic, April 26, 1939. 

New Republi( 
Rauschning,B*HlTLER speaks. 

London: But terwojfth, 1939. 

New York: Harper, 1940. 
IS. Str^saer, Q« HITLER AND I. 

Boston: Houghton Hiffllfij 1940. 
X9* Vier^Ok, P* MEfAPOLITICS. 

New York: Knopf, 1941. 



Iltetailed Analyajs of HI tier 'a PersoJiality 


F 5 


(Written especially 
for psycholo.glsta 
and psychiatrists ) 

'^'iS' .'j"'-,"^,", V ;"'•*-' r^ C"' •• "•■' '" *•• ^- - ',- - .- ■^ J >'; .- ^Y'f: ^-^^.J^.^,-.-".*;- . -t-^,' ,•*•'' .f OVA fi, ,'<'■>. .-^ ',, .''- .^ <.'f>'j ,'.- 

■>.^v,,. - • ? r -. •^'/? 

- 82 - 


In writiog tlils analysis of Hitler* a personality^ 
the /use of certalis technical words was unavoidable. 
Although I have attempted to follow as simple and 
Intelligible a fox^ as possible, I could not, without 
much circumlocutioii and vagueness, get along without 
three terms : 

Need (roughly synonymous with Drive , impulse, 
tendency, purpose, instinct)^ This is a force within 
the subject (!.•£• ^ the individual whose behavior 
is being studied) which inclines him to strive tov^rd 
a certain goal, the attainment of v/hich reduces momen* 
tarily the tension of the need. Needs vary in kind 
and in strength* 

?ress (plural: press). This is a force, emanating 
,_from an^ object (usually a person) in the environment, 
which is directed toward the subject . A press (for 
the subject) is the need or drive in the object, which, 
if successful, would harm or benefit him. Press 
vary in kind and in strength. 

Cehthexis . This is the power of an object 
to arouse feelings of liking (positive cathexis) 
or of disliking (negative cathexis) in the subject. 
It is also permissible to aay that the subject 

. - 83 • 

"positively cathects^ or simply "cathects" (values, 
admires^ loves) one object; of that he *'negf?tively 
dathecta^ (de]^ re elates^ sCorhs, fesrs, hates) another^ 
^e cathexia (potency) of objects --^ their ability 
to evoke behavior in the subject ~ can vary in kind 
(poaitlva Of riegative) or in strength* 


Thirty 3pa^rs ago Hitler was a common biim^ an 
unemployed nonentity, a derelict of the polyglot 
society that i»as Vienna, '•it i*as a miserable life,^ 
his pal, Hanisc-h^ has written, '?and I once asked him 
what he wps' really waiting for* He answered: »I 
don't know myself*' I have never seen such helpless 
letting-down in distress. •' 

Twenty years later Hitler was dictator of all 
Oermany. He was not waiting for anything; but demanding 
and getting all that a boundlessly ambitib\is man could 
want. Many people thought that they had never seen 
such resolute confidence in victory. 

Three years ago> at the age of fifty-one. Hitler 
was the^ most powerful and successful individual on 
earth, on the one hand, the most worshipped, on the 
other, the most despised. In Germany he was virtually 

- 84 ^ • 

a demlgodt he had unlimited power; he was always 
right; h#, ©ould do no wrong; he wco the savior of the 
Vaterlandij the.* conqueror of Europe, the divinely 
fippolnted |)rophet of a new era. There was a Hitler 
Stragse or Hitler Platz in every town. "Hell Hitler^ 
Wa3 the Cdnvential greeting for acquaintances* The 
man^s pictura was prominently displayed in every . 
puhlic buildifig^^ in every railroad station, in millions 
of homes # Hla autoMography was accepted as the Bible 
of ^ revolutionary fplk religion. Hitler was compared 
to Christy . ; 

The matt is Chiefly interesting as © force that 
has affected ^the lives of rabrTi people on this globe , 
than any men' in history, aided, to be sure, by new 
and miraculous instj7uments of communication. How was 
it possible Tor a man so Insignificant in stattire and 
appearance, so deficient in bodily strength and emotional 
control, so lacking in intellectual attainments ~ 
how was it possible for such a mm to succeed where 
the mightiest aermans of the pest had failed? vihet 
kind of a man is this Hitler? V/het are his chief 
abilities and disabilities? Whet conditions in 
Germany were conducive to his meteoric rise to power? 
vrhat is he likely to do next? And, if the Allies 

-as - 

get thelx* hands qb hla, .&)w odrS hd bo treated so that 
ha will never rise aglilil as a legendary figure tjo 
mati^gate another Satanic revolution against cultured 
These are among the (iru'eatidnfl that have been f^ced 
in thia t*aper * 

1?he" aspects of Bltler»a persenality that especially 
require explanation are these: tha intensity of the 
mart's dedlcatlcn tc the CJ^eatlon at an itJeal; the 
nature of his life-di?ai8a; "or Mission^ as he conceives 
it; the fanati(SisiB cf his sentiinants gliqi Pe«^er> .,^^ . 

Olory, Dictatorship, lUlitarism, Brutality^ the 
Aggressiird Instinct, Hationalisni, Puritf of Bi66dj 
and the fanaticistt of his sentiments cori V'eakness, 
Indecision, Tolei?ance, Compassion, peace, R^itlonal 
Debate, Democracy, -Bolshevism, the Acquisitive Instinct^ 
Materialism, Capltailam, thd Jewish Hace, Chris tlenity* 
Also of interest arej the nature of his oratorical 
power ovei* the emctions cf the masses; his painting 
and architechtufal interests; the vagaflea of his 
sex instinct; and the significance of his neurotic 
and psychotic symptoms* 

- 86 w 

(A point of fxindajnontdl Iinp6»tan60 I0 thd larga 
gyoio (fQiaini;ie) eomponent in Hitler's constitution* 

His hips are tdde ana his shoulders reletivoly 
nari»QW. Hia niuacles are flabby; his lfl$a thin and 
spindly, thQ lattei- being hidden in th6 past by 
heavy boots and more recently by long trousers* He 
is hollow cheated, end in the throes of passionate 
speech His voice sometimes breaks Into shrill falsetto* 
In contrast to his ttagcuXine ideal for Oenttan youth, 
Hitler's physical strength and agility are definitely 
b<sl&w the average, fie was frȣl as a child, never 
labored In th^ fields, oeref played rou^ games. 
m has long tapQj?ing eeissltiire fingera. Ih Vienna, 
h6 was too weaic to be ettployed on constyuotion Jobs . 
and before the outbreak of ^'orld We.r I was rejected 
by the Austrian Army as permanently disqualified 
for service. He was discouraged after one attempt 
to ride a horse, and in the last twenty years his 
exercise has b&en limited to short walks. Some 
informants say that he is physically incapable of 
normal soxixal relations. His movements have been 

- 87 • 

doscrlbed es womenlsh -^ a dolnty ladylike wny of 
walking (when not asstimlng a mllitcry carriage In 
public), of famine to gestures of his arms — a 
peculiar graceless Ineptitude reminiscent of, a girl 

thx^owlnga baseball^ 


2* Medical arid Paychlatrlc Hlstogy 

Hitler has suffered from nervous gastritis, or 
Indigestion, for ttahy years. This Is probably a 
psychosomatic syndrome, part and parcel of his general 
neurotlclsm* ' 

A German psychiatrist who examined Rltlor'a medical 
record In World War i has" reported that the diagnosis 
of his condition was hysterical blindness. In other 
words, he did not suffer fi»om mustard gas poisoning, 
as publicly stated, but from a war neurosis » Xt has 
also been said that he was not only blind but d\mib,. 
and (according to one Informant) deaf. 

Soma years ago a benign polyp was removed from 
a vocal chord. 

Hitler Is a victim of temper tantrums which have 
Increased In Intensity and frequency d\irlng the last 
ten years. A typical seizure consists of (1) pacing, 
shouting, cursing, blaming, accusations of treachery 

m ■: 

'■ \ " . ' ''7'V '^'V,''! '#*'J|- -fS'T../'^ ' 
- 88 - 


and botrQyGl; (2) weeping and exhibitions of self- 
pity; and ($) falling on the- floor, foaming at the 
mouth, bltlt^g the carpet. The man has some control 
OVe^e these epileptiform attacks, using them to get 
his OAvn ifvay with his close associates. 

Hitler also suffers from agitated deprossions, 
affrighting nightmares, hypochondriacal states in which 
he fears that hd "will be poisoned or die from cancer 
5f the stOinftch. 


The moat aignificant fact about Hitler's appoar- 
anco la Ita utter Inalghlficance. He Is the proto- 
type of the little men, an \jnnecessary duplicate, 
apparently, that one would never tvirn to look at 
twice. For ten years, notwlthstcnding, Oermons have 
been gazing at him and^ spellbound, seen the magnetic 
figxire of one who could have said and done what Hitler 
has said ahd done. 

Comments have chiefly centered on Hitler's eyes 
and his hands. Although his greyiah-blue eyes are 
usually stary and dead, impersonal and unseeing, at 
times he looks a man or woman straight in the face 
with a fixed, unwavering gaze that has been described 

^■j-'.-r- ■».,:..,>..:,/ ^..'---x ; v v^^Vt^rf^^ /tij rv. -ATtiTr? ^?; --V^'* ^ • ^'-y^X ''"^"'^^ ' -v "•• ' ^.•■:,.:-.4.----. :>.•.. ■,./.,-•.. ^^ ^;.;,-.^- ^y.i*p.-;>a.-^i*;r~:'^>s,i;./rv;,,^^HV;*:->^ 


ea l^o'^ltlvtXjp hypo«^i«« Behind t?i» bebitudl ^aejaftcf 
of oxptessioB seBie dt^Qarn an l^tdssd fXQnd of 
p689l,0Batl4 dddl6«ti(»»* Eia 'hdnd« arV stiMkingXj 
w$ll*9hapod and eaiproaaiT©, and tii 'haranguing an 
audlanco Vb»t at* uaed t^o good effeot;* 

totaXXy Xajjklng in dlatln^tlon* Hia features a i»d soft, 
hl» oheaka iTaXloi* and pxtffy* hi* ha^dsbaka Xoo«#« his 
j^aXms oplat and cXaiaoiy. Such f^atui^as oan hatdly 
be appraciatad by the ©varaga visitor aa bvidanoea 
of an li?on Man* • . 

la hi9 raaetiona to tha worXd, HltXai* pXaya 
amny pat>tjat tb^«^ ta the expreaaiohlesa HitXai*j 
Xtka a dunany atandihg with upiaiaed hand in the front 
of a «lat*wheeXed wot orcai* thai t aoyei at a aX^w pace . 
down the fip?eat avenue between aeirled j?ank8,of ahouting 
worahlpfuX adhetenta, There la the embarr^aaed HitXey ^ 
iXX at eaae, eiren aubaeirvient, in the presenoe of a 
atrangai?! an eriatbcrat^ a great generoX, or a king 
(as on hla visit to Italy)* a?here is the graciotis 
giiXer . the soft, goCKil*fi«tured Austrian, gentXe^ 
InfornjaX, end oVen liiodeat, w^Xcoiiiing friendly adndrera 
at hia irlXXa; aa well as the aentimentaX Hitler , 
weeping over e deed canary* fhen there is the tactical 

' * 90 •* 

Hi tie ^^ who cdmed In at tshe orltleai moinent with- ti» 
aaringly right deoisiotij an4 tho ttygticeX HitXcg l 
hinting of a thousand years of superiority for th« 
German folkj the e6aaoaa.ed Bitier > shrieking with 
fanatlcaX fury as he exhorts the aasaesj tho 
hysteridalHitler* rolling on the oarpet or 
with terror as he wakes from a nightfljarej the 
ati^athetld HitXer ,,' Xlmp/ indoieritj> and indecisive} 
and at aXl tiaes, the soaphox Hitlerj ^eady to go 
off haif-<?ocked on a long tirade even though he i» 
addressing a singXe individual* Of aiX these, it is 
^ the. tacticaX Hitler, the myatioal Hi tier, and the 
•poasessed Hitler which have been chief Xy inatrumental 
in 'winning the position he now hoXds. It is because 
of these pewerfuX inhabitants of his being that people 
hay^ accepted and tolerated the leas appeaXing or Xess 


... , ^ -^^;t^r-^-y-!'7r-vr.: 

9X « 

1837 Maria Anna SchlcklgimbQi' has an lilegltimato 

sdft, Alois,, born in Stronea> noai» Spltal 
jahana (Jeorg fiiedler (tiltiat*) m« Mel*!© Anna 

1830 Birth of p-ara PoelsX in Spltal 

'■ *Aloi8 Schickligruber log^tlitti^edas A16id mtXer 
Al9i8 fitter m* Anna OXaal*Horer (14 years 

1883 l>«ath of Anna Qlasl^Eorer In Braunau 
188S Alola Hitler ». Pranzlska'lfiatzolbergei? 

cal88$ • BtJ?th.,of Alois Hitler JJ?#, 2 month* after 


1884 Bllfth of Angela Hitler 

1884 Delith of Pran^lska llatzelberger 

1865. J*|i« 7 • • 

Alois Hitler (47 years) m, Klara Poelzl 
. Birth of two chlWren who die in Infancjr 
i88d, Apr* 20 , \, 

, * Bi^th of Adolf Hitler in Braunau 

Family move to Passau (Bavnrla) on Austrian 
cal893 . Alois Hitler retires on a pension 

Pamils^'move to Lambach (24 miles from Llnsi); 
CathbUe oonvent 
calB96 Birth of Paula Hitler ^ 

cal900 Family itfbve to Leondlhg (suburb of I^lftZ); 

Technl<5el School 

1903, Jan. 3 

,• Death of' Al^la Hitler 
Family iwya to Linz 
1904*5 A^olf Hitler attends school in $^teyt^ 
1907, Octijflitler fail* to pass examlnatioh of Acedemy 

of Arts, Vienna 
1907 Dec* 21 

' Kla*^ Hitler dies, (A* H, is 18 y^j?i*» old) 
190£l,Jan« A. Hi moves to Vienna ^ 

1908, Oct, A. H* fails a second time to pass examination 

of Academy of Arts 
I9l3 A, H. moves to Munich, 

# Hot all these datea are reliable; most of the 
early ones are from Ounther»s INSIDE EUROPE. 


1889 - X907 


I. B^mil]r Seletloftg 

1:, |ph|£ " / " ' ^^ • 

. ^(J8i0 dr the cenfualofi %Tm% hfefl arisen tn iw^jftrd 
to Hltlej*'a fouetweJ?^' aisti^p«al?» efl soon a« iw reaXl»« 
tla0 ftfejtaa Sitiet' htia b^en- varlotialy fj>ail«di • Bldlati, 
Hledle^, ^ettlar « b^f iJiffes?orit ^enibara of the saaa 
lilltej?ate peaaant^ajnlijr* Adolf HltlojiHa paronta 
yrhtQ botli deaoendod froni on© Hitler (fathor'a grand* 
father and mother ♦ a graat-gpndfather)| an inhabitant 
of the culturally baokward Weldvlertel dlatrlct, 
tipper Austria, 

KarBhal Hifidenburg 

Al6li Hltloa ^^ 
HitlfiJ<*f fatllGi?, 
Note tettemblahee 
to Rlhdenburg. 




Family at itoi*? iindPepg one Mt3^o^ iPathey 

tlid dblef faeta «l)6ufc Aiot« ffltXer nrhleb hav0 
t^^aritig' on eu» dna3.3r^i9 ai*a tliea9 1 

(ai Acdoraiug t$ aa iii<it;dpy 0r4ai?ed fey thd 
Auati*ian <^»ee3,Xoi*i ^ultfinsty Mai^la Am& Sohiiekl^ 
gimbejp bflieaiiia pregnaoil during he i? ewployflienii aa a 
aai^ant In a ^aHah Vtermaa4( family* ?6» ijhia 
raaaoift al)» wi« aauti' t>ac^t( txi hatf homa ijpt tha ^otrntry* 
If thia i« tima,. AlOta ii^Jtef* may ^va been ftalf* 
^andaUr tha fa a* tba* ba aaieotad a jraw^ lari* pirina 
of vt anna I ta ^ tha go4fati»e» efbiaaon Adolf ^ la 
IB Xlna mX%h tibia byi^ttlMala* 

(t)> Itt aay avafttj^ Alaia HI tie* waa lllagltlmate 
and aa aiich vaa .no doubt mada t^a auffer tbe c^ntampt 
9i tba llttsXa c<j»munlty^ gpital, i«» which ha i»aa reaj?ad# 
Bayluipa It natfor thla raaaon tbat he laft hla bona 
a1} an early aga to seek bis fortune In Vienna, 
. (o) Alola Hitler atarted life Ba i simple 

'<5ol)bler but finally Improved bis status by becoming 
a cuatoma official. For a time he patrolled the 
(lamian-Auatrlatt border, was known as a 'man-hunter^ • 
Ee was very proud of this position, believing that 
It antltled blm to lord It over those of the cl&ss 
tbat bEid oaee scorned hlm^ 

»,* , , <- £ . V *i:*vV !j- ,.« ^, '^^^^ ^ 

^ 9© - 

(d) In appeerence Alois Hitler resembled Marshal' 
Hindenburg.^^ He had a walrus moustache, under which 
protruded sullen and arrogant iff lower lip# He wore 

an uniform^ his badge of dtatus; and as a border 
patrolman carried a revolver on his person. Hs smoked 
and ran after women. It is said that he frequented . 
the vi Ilia ge pub and enjoyed nothing so much as recount- 
ing his accomplishments to a receptive auditory* He 
was a coarse man, with boasts and curses forever on 
his tongue. He died of apoplexy^ 

(e) He was twenty- three ye&rs older than his 
wife, a peasant girl who had once served as a maid 
in the house of his first wife* Thus, the father •s 
greater age, his higher social status, the traditional 
prerogatives of the husband in the German family, the 
man's over-weening pride — all supported him ih 
maintaining a master- servant relationship with his 
wife. Prau Hitler was nervous, mild, devoted, and 
submissive. In his own home, Alois Hitler WaS a 

(f ) In his treatment of his son Adolf, it is 
said that the father was stern and harsh* Physical 
punishments were frequent. He seems to have looked on 
his son as a weakling^, a good-for-nothing, moonstruck 

^' ._•^,^^^.^^v**^>^.:^.*•f^•^::^.' '• '.^r^?:^^ • v ;- ■ v^^^-^^-'> a? .-.^ .^-^v;.---;. ..v . v-, -.y ,^-s- ..: ^^c:^.. . • 

if. ^ ,, ,• 

• 98 - 

aream^i*; at tlnos porhapd hla vanity imagined a 
fjuccesaful career for the boy, which would still further 
lift the fpmlly status, and so when young Adolf announced 
his intention to be an artist the father, perceiving 
the frustration of his dream, put his foot down — 
"An artist, no, never as long es I live." (K.K. 14). 

(g) .There is some doubt about the complexion of 
Alois Hitler »s political sentiments, Haniach reports 
that "Hitler heard from his father only praise of 
Germany and all the faults of Austria;" but, accord- 
ing to Heiden, more reliable informants claim that 
the father, though full of complaints and criticisms 
of the government he served, was by no means a German 
nationalist. They say he favored Austria against 


(h) It is not unlikely that Hitler in writing 
his sketch of the typical lower class home drew upon 
his personal experiences, and if this is true, the 
following passages give us an interesting side-light 
on the character of the father: 

(1) But things end badly Indeed when 
the man from the very start goes hi»r^Q way 
(Alois Hitler »ran after other women') and 
the wlfe^ for the sake of : her children^ 
stands up against him. Quarreling and 
naming set in,, and in the same measure in 
which the husband becomes estranged from 
hit: wife » he becomes familiar with 

P^^- ••••;\^ f V ■ 


^ 97 - 

alcohol, ••'''lien he finally comes home on 
Stuiday or Monday night, drunk end brutal, 
but always without a last cent and penny, 
then God have mercy on the scenes which 
follow. 1 witnessed all of this personally 
in_ hundreds or scenes and at the beginning 
wit h both disgust and indignation ##V 
(M.K. 58U58). -^ • 

The other things the little fellow 
hears at home do not tend to further his 
respect for his Surroundings # Hot a 
single shred is left for humanity, not 
a single institution is left \anat tacked;. 
, starting with the teacher, up to the 
head of the State, be it religion, or 
morality as such, be it the State or 
Society, no matter which, everything 
is abused, everything is pulled down 
in the nastiest manner. into the filth 
of a depraved mentality ^ (M.K# 43). 

(i) Relations to father '" 

There are reasons to believe that the boy Adoif 
was very much afraid of his father in his early years; 
that ho was timid and submissive in his presence; 
but when he was out of reach of his father^s immense 
authority (when his father was out of the house or 
when the boy was at school under less severe dis- 
ciplinarians) he was often unruly and defiant. He 
had no respect for a lenient system of government • 

Not until he was eleven did Adolf dare to oppose 
his father. Here the issue was the selection of his 
vocation: Herp Hitler wanted his son to follow in 
. his footsteps and become a State official; but the 

- 98 - 

boy podded ha wanted to be an ertlst. Of this 

eobfliot between father and son. Hitler writes: 

(i) His doxnineering nrtiire, the 
result of a life-long struggle for existendo^ 
would have thought it unbearcble to 
leave the ultimate decision to a boy 
who, in his opinion, was inexperienced 
and irresponsible • (VI.K4 11 )• 

(ii) No matter how firm and de- 
termined my father might be in carrying 
but his plans and intentions once made, 
his son was Just as stubborn and 
obstinate^.* (V^K. 12) • 

(iii) -••he opposed me with the 
resoluteness of his entire nature. ..The 
old man became embittered, and, much as 
I loved him, the same was true of myself 
•••and now the old man relentlessly began 
to enforce his authority. (M.K. 13-14). 

It is obvioua from thede and other passages, 
as well as from local hearsay, that the i*elations of 
Adolf and his parent from 1900^1903 (when the father 
died) were exceedingly stormy. It wns a classical 
father-son conflict. 

(j) Hote l Hitler ♦s attitude to old men. In 
many places, in KEIN KAMPF and in some of his recorded 
conversations. Hitler speaks of old men in a derogatory and 
edntemptudus mannei:'* it is often very suggestive of what 
might have been hie sentiments tbimrds his sixty- 
year-old father (twenty**- three years older than his 
mother) # The following quotations might be cited 
in i 1 Ills t rat ion: 

» 99 - 

(I) Rauschnlng: Everywhere, Hitler 
complained, there were nothing but aterlle 
old men In their second childhood^ who 
bragged of their technical knowledge and 
had lost their sound common sense, 

(II) Hitler, quoted bv Helden: 
Mv Kre&t adversary, Reichapx«sldent von 

. HLdenburg,;ii tOdey (^ptt^pVe yoo^ 
of age. I erf fortj-ttoNfl^n4;^ feel in 
berf ect health- ArJ^^ilbthliig #11 hcpP®^ 
to me. fot^^m'f^oeimm^Mii^P^a of the 
great task which frChddSiS&^Ps assigned 
* to me. 

8* Mother 

(e) f>er8 6helity of Mother 

The pertinent facts ajTs thoaf i 

Klara Poelzl was an exemjjlajpy housekeeper. Her 
home was always spotlessly lieeh, everything had 
Its place, not a speck ot dust on the furniture. 

She had a gentle nature. Her relatively young 
age, her docile character, her years of domestic 
service — all inclined her to compliance end 
Christian resignation. The trials and tribulations 
of life with an Irascible husband resulted in a 
permanent attitude of abnegation. Toward her son 
Adolf she was ever devoted, catering to his whims 
to the point of spoiling him. She it i^as who 
encouraged his artlstlo ambitions. 

_ : .|;<^,V--'^^TJ^*^.> v^L "^H^S^iT '^'-i -■■H^f:;j%'>v.s5^>*>>'iWii?:^;:yc\^i^ " o^f^-^r*^' ■ •>.• ; .>>\ >'•**^3?^V'^fS^i:?^>^)^^'.^^^'^. 



>^^' ■ 

r'^ ■ 
-J'-- ■ ■ 

v.: ■■ 





^ 100- - 

Tho mother ',^5 3^ opis rated, on for- ofincer of the 
troQst In the summer of 1907 fsnd dlod ivithin six months. 


Tt is very llkely^-thfit the disease v^rrs inrrkod by 
uloc'rctiona of the -chest, wall, r-.ncd ^tiotnstBseG in the 
lunss • 

^^V^XLER'S -mother:!^ .-^iTM 

(b) Relation^-.- to^ Mother . . 

■ -.."Hi tier- beta written very little and said nothing:- 

publicly eibout his mother, but the few scraps obtsiri-o-ai*^ 

suggest many youthful years of loving depondoncc 

upon her/ Hitler speeiks ofr 

fi) ■ ,..'*the mo tTi$T. devoting herself to 
v.-^-. the caros of the housetiold looking after hei- 
, .children .wlth^ eternally the same loving 
kindness, (M^K* S) f 

. "^..-^ 

. ■■■^■.^ 



. V! :',4-!,;, ■■ ! , *: J4 ..^ 


: •' ;"\^*v' ' r> ^.. . ■.^; N .- . "^i^ "'r • ^--^ > "*• ^V' ••'•'-'. ^4';i^;«"' 


. lOX ^ 


(ii) for three or four of tfa^ygjy^l^^ . 
betweerv Ma father's and his mother ''tfleffChi; 
Adolf mtierliai«d away a good deal of hi# ; 
time aa'fch^ Indulged apple of his mother's 
eye. Sy -allowed hlra to drop his «^ie»^. 
at the I^Aischulej she encouraged htm In his 
ambltlbfisTtobe a painter; she yielded to 
his evei» these years, > It Is 
report^dl^ thflK i^lationittip between mother 
arid son wil marked by r^lprocal adoration. 
Hitler's aniazlriis self^ai^aurarice, (at most 
times) can be attribute^' in part to the 
iSpi-ession pf these yea^ wheri at the age 
or thirteeft hi;^., father. Cted and he succeeded 
to th6 p6wer and became the littliT dlatatojp 
of the family V: «3* pl?«rj»^othei^. Alois. ^ 
had left by this .tlm0^1ft;o<l he tras' th* tmXt 

maiev U * Wehold, o*:^?*- ^"'f^JS^r^S^^L 
hapfel^it'daysi'they seemed like a/di'eaaf to me, 

ana At ^^«y were ^"^ :(M,t. 25). ; = v.. 


;/^^ (lii)'^!: titler warites: "My aiotlier^s 
deatk.>;wa#^ tei-riblB, shock <?ciinew*f i-«>r«<l . 

,: (isr) .Sbr* Blooh>epolSa^t^%;Ad 

cried wh^n, he heard of hla mother 'ajjiifw- 
liiR^ At bpei-aticn and later at hej?, death ' 

exSbiledgre^t grief... The do^tqi? .!»*. JgJJ, 
/seeit anyone ap prostrate with' sorrow, Afts*; 
tfee -buri^t ^ ^e Catholic^cemetery, Adqlf /^ 
. sWyea;by'he|''g^y^lon^Jffer th« dther* 

-ha<t,dep8X?tejy.K<,f>j3^*%j ■•■';*. "4^ 

%T^' ' fV).' -:eitlerwoi"r the* picture of his 
" mother over his breasf la th? field during 
World War 1. 

(vl) That .the mother-child relation- 
ship was a compelling, though rejected, pattern 
for Hitler may be s-urtnised from (1) his 
attachftient to %ubstitutf others' durlri^ 

his po3.t^var years^ i^X M^, ^^^T^"^,^ °r 
'mother imagery' in speaking and wrltln|. 
and (3) his seleotloh of picture^ of Madonna 
and child to decoratethl« rocms. 


■; -. ^■ ■ 

Mr . 

■ A 

..iL ■:■ 

■ ' / 

4 . . 

■ ■^. 


■',''.:.'■ ■'^^■r^'^-'' 

■■■ ■^^^^?5'??S^?J^^ 


Corper of Big Kc3oni at Ber&6te3ga^(Jen;i 
■ Palntijig-^of ■ Madon^S: &-Chlld^ov«r^"mantfel.' 

Ft^am tiieae and ot^ier Klts^ ol' evidence w© can 



GonQludo that Hitler laved hiW mother and hated his 

■ ■'" . ■' ■ ■^."^- , ■ ■. :\.f .. ■'■■I * 

father, that he had an O^dlpua Complsg^ '^;S-J^ other wdx^a. 
But, a 3 we shall aoon §ee^ thi^ can explain only one 
phase of hia relationship to "Siis perentsip 

|. itn-v- ,j>y^-»y~. 


- 105 - 

Sl>" ■ 

(c) SlbllDga 

It is oertalnthat there were two older children 
In the household diirlng Adolf's early years. The 
father had been inarried twice before; there was a. 
half-brother, Alois Hitler, Jr., and a half-sister, 
Angela Hitler. We know nothing of Hitler's relation- 
ship to the former (who much later turtied up in Berlin 
as proprietor of a restatirant). The half-sister, 
Angela, married Herr Raubal, an official in the tax 
bureau in Linz. Later she managed a restaurant for 
Jewish students at the Univera^ity of Vienna. For 
some years she was Hitler's liouaekeeper at Berchtes- 
gaden, until she married Professor Martin Haumizsch 
of Dresden, where she now lives. 

(i) Several informants have stated that 
there is a younger sister, Paula, born whep Adolf 
was about seven years old. Consequently, he must 
have experienced the press Birth of Sibling during 
his childhood. This younger sister, it seems, is a 
very peculiar, a e elusive person who now lives in 
Vienna. It has been said that she had affairs with 
several men in t\arn, one of whom was a Jew. It is 
believed that she is mentally retarded. 

-.^jf^.'-X'^"' *'*?«■' "'** v'""-^:")C>'* 

- 104 - 


(11) Thero are reports of two children 
vho died In Infancy before Adolf was bom* One of 
th<»«e may have been Ednrand^ d* Gustaf , mentioned by 
some informants* 

$,. Boyhood fteactioha. Activities ^Pnd Interests 

Very little reliable information exists as to 
Hitler's childhood. Most informants, however, agree 
on the following points: . 

(a) Physical Weakness.- Adolf was a frail lad, 
thin and pale. He did not participate in any athletics 
or enjoy hard physical exercise. He was sensitive 
and liked to be with his mother, look at books, sketch 
landscapes; or take walks by himself. He liked to 
daydream about Germany's wars, but he did nothing to 
fit himself to be a soldier. When he tired of school 
(ashamed of his inferiority in scholarship), he became 
nervously sick (feigned lung trouble ) , and his mother 
permitted him to drop out and stay at home. 

(b) Low Tolerance of Frustration,- One can bo 
certain that, as a child, Adolf reacted violently to 
frustration • He undoubtedly had temper tantrums 
which were reifiapded by his mother's ready compliance 
to his wiah^i?^ (This was hi» way of "courting the 
soul of the common people".) He was also finnicky 
about food, we can be sure. 

;\^'^^ >' 


- X06 - 

Vr . '■ 


(c) Rebolliousnesa and Ropooted Aggression — 

At home discipline was capricious: His father was 

often tanusually severe, his mother inordinately 

lenient , As a result, he developed no steady and 

consistent character; he alternated between subservience 

(tp placate his father) and unruliness'. 

(i) Lansing: His first teacher 
recalled. ..that he was a quarrelsome, . 
stubborn lad who smoked cigarets and cigar 
stubs collected from the gutter or begged 
from roisterers in the public houses. 

(li) ^nish reports that Hitler 
told him- that the people of the Innviertel 
were great brawlers and that, as a boy, 
he used to love to wAtch their fights. 
Also, that he used to enjoy visiting a 
fine exhibition in Line of deadly weapons. 
What others abhorred appealed to him. 
(N.B., Here is fair evidence of repressed 
aggression (sadism) during boyhood.) 

(ill) Hitler, as a: mere boy of ten, 
became passionately interested in reading 
about the "amazingly victorious campaign 
of the heroic German armies during the 
Franco- Prussian War". Soon this had be-, 
come »*my greatest spiritual expeirience". 
(M.K. 8). 

(iv) I raved more and more about 
everything connected with war or militarism. 
(M.K. 8). 

(v) A careful examination of the 
first chapter of MEIN KAMP? will convince 
any psychologically ti^liWil reader that 
Adolf's vigorous adivptsacf of the cause of 
Germany as oiiposed td thst of Austria from 
the age of eleven onward -J^epre sen ted a^ 
legitimate substitute for his repressed 

S'-f',-. .V.' 

- 106 - 

rebellion against hia father. Inspired by hlis 
history teacher. Professor Poetsch (father- 
surrogate), and a long line of German military 
heroes, the boy could give vent to his pent-up 
resentment by publicly proclaiming his devotion 
to the German Reich of Bisraark and vehemently 
denouncing the authority of Austria (symbol of 
his fathom). In MEIH KAMPP Hitler writes at 
length of his possession of : 

(vi) ,♦. an intense love for my native 
German- Austrian coxintry and a bitter hatred 
against the 'Austrian' State. (M.K. 22-23). 

Speaking pf the youthful Nationalist movement 
that he Joined, he writes: 


(vii) is rebellious; it wears the 
forbidden emblem of its own nationality and 
rejoices in being punished or even in being 
beaten for wearing that emblei|p. ..the greeting 
was »Heil»; and •Doutschland ubef alles' was 
preferred to the imperial anthem, despite 
warnings and pxinishments . (M.K. 15). 

It was during these days that he first began 
to play the rfele of a young agitator. 

(viii) I believe that oven then my 
ability for making speeches was trained by 
the more or less stirring discussinns with 
ray comrades .. .For .pbvious reasons my father 
could not appreciate the talent for oratory 
of his qtaarrelsome son. (M.K. 7). 

The boy's ideas of greatest glory revolved round 
the victories of the Franco- Prussian War. 

(ix) Why was it that Austria had not 
taken part also in this -^r. why not my father 
. ,.,? (M.K. 9). I had decidedly no sympa-cny 
for the course my father's life had taken. 
(M.K. 7). During the years of my \mruly youth 
nothing had grieved me more than having been born 


at a tltno when temileteif glory we|i #ly 
erected to merchant^ 6>p State offitl|ri 
(his father's profession)* (M.K* 53plJ » 
I, too, wanted to become 'somotlltng* *»- 
iDut In no event an official. (M^K-* S6), 

These quotations supply further eiriaolnce 

of Adolf's repressed hatred of his father and of the 

fact that negativism end wilfulness had become es- 

tablished patterns before puberty. 

(d) Passivity, or Illness, as Means of 

Resistance,- Hitler manifested a significant aspect 

of his nattire when he determined to frustrate his 

father's intention to make a civil servant out of 

himi The policy he adopted was that of resistance 

through indolence and passivity. 

(i) I was certain that as soon as 
. my father saw my lack of progress in school 
...he would lot mo seek the happiness 
of which I was dreaming, (M.K, 14). 

Later, after his father's death, whon he wanted 
to leave school, he won his mother's consent by making 
himself sick. 


(i) Impressed by my Illness my mother 
agreed at long last to take me out of school... 
(M.K. 24). 

After this he spent two years of shiftless 
activity around the house, which set the pattern 
for his passive drifting, and dreaming days in Vienna. 

. 108 - 

(e) Lack of Friends.- No friendships dating 
frcon boyhood have ever been mentioned and it is not 
likely that the boy was at all popular with his class- 
ma tos« During adolescence he was said to be quiet ^ 
serious, dreamy and taciturn. 

(f ) Sexual Misbehavior. A Nazi who visited 
Leonding much later and looked up the school records 
there foxind evidence that at the age of eleven or 
twelve Adolf had committed a serious sexual indiscre- 
tion with a little girl. For this he was punished 
but not expelled from school. 

4« Conclusioria 

(a) Hate for Father^ Love for Mother > (Oedipus 
Complex ), This has been noted and stressed by numerous 
psychologists; and some evidence for it has been listed 
here. Rarely mentioned but equally important is: 

(b) Respect for Power of Father^ Contempt for 
Weakness of Mother # Hitler is certainly not a typical 
product of the Oedlpu«i complex, and more can be learned 
about the tmderlying forces of his character by 
observing which parent he has emulated, rather than 
which parent he has loved. In MEIN KAMPP, he writes, 
"I had respected my father, but I loved my mother." 

- 109 - 

>Si? \ ' 

ih . 



He might better hovo sold, "I lovod my mother, but 
I respected ray father", because respect has always 
jneant more to him than love. 

(c) Identification with Father . Although Hitler 
has not the physique or temperament of his old man, 
being constitutionally of another type, it is evident 
that he has imitated, consciously or unconsciously, 
many of his father's traits and none of his mother's. 

(d) Adolf Hitler's will to power, his pride, 
aggressiveness and cult of brutality are all in 
keeping with what we know of the personality and 
conduct of Alois Hitler. The son's declaration that 
he has demanded nothing but sacrifices from his ad- 
herents is certainly reminiscent of the father's 
attitude toward wife and children. 

(i) ...his son has vindoubtedly in- 
herited, amongst other qualities, a stubborn- 
ness similar to his own... (M.K. 14). 

(e) The father's loud, boastful, and perhaps 

drunken, talk, at home and at the pub (described by 

some informants), may well have provided his young 

son with an impressive model for emulation. The 

nbtion of being a village pastor had appealed to 

Alois Hitler and that of being an abbot appealed 

to his boy, no doubt for the same reason — the 

opportvinity it afforded for oratory. 

- 110 - 

(f) Father and son each left home to seek his 
fortune in Vienna. In MEIH KAMPP there are several 
Indications that the image of his father's success 
in Vienna acted as a spur. 

(i) I, tooj hoped to wrest from Pate 
the success my father had met fifty years 
earlier ... (K.K» 25). 

(ii) And I would overcome these 
obstacles, always bearing in mind my father's 
example, who, from being a poor village boy 
and a cobbler's apprentice, had made hls^way 
up to the position of civil servant. (M.K. 28}. 

(g) Adolf Hitler sported a walrus moustache 
like his father's for a number of years. He finally 
trinmed it in imitation of a new exemplar, Peder. 

(h) Adolf Hitler's invariable uniform and 
pistol may well have been suggested by Alois Hitler's 
uniform and pistol (1 (d)). 

(i) It is said that Alois Hitler had a great 
respect for the class system; was proud of his rise 
in status; envied those above him and looked down 
upon those below him. If this is true, the father 
was Inatrtmiental in establishing a pattern of s6nti- 
ments which itka of determining importance in his son's 
career. Adolf Hitler has always been envious of his 
superiprs and deferential j ha has never showed any 
affinity for the prpl^tari^^i. 

II" ! 

■ . . ■ -. Ill-- 

■■ (3)- Ado.if Hitlor has hung a portrait, of hia 
father -ava^? the de^)^ In his study at Berchtesgadan- 
Thla is a signal honor, since the likeness of oj^ly 
three other men — Frederick tha Greats Karl von' 
Moltke, s-nd Mussolini -- have been selected for 
inolualon in- any of Hltlar^a rooitia- Th^^re is no- 
vjhete any picture of his mother. 


Hitler's Study at Berghof , 

Desk faces portrait of Alois Hitler. 

- us - 

Aloitt, it. la 8ftid> waQ a smoker, a drinker and 
a lecher; and today hie eon is remarkable for his 
ahatemloiisneee. Thus, in these reapects the two 
are different 4 But we should not /forget that Adolf 
Used t9 pick upoiiiar butts and smoke them as a boy; 
he dreok beer and wine In his early Munich days ; and 
In the last flifteen years has shown a good deal of 
Interest In women* 

O^ere can b* no doubt then that. Hitler greatly 
enTled andL admlreil the power and authority of his 
father; and although he hated him as the tyrant wbq 
opposed and frustrated him personally, he looked on 
him with awe, and. admiration, desiring to be as he 
was. Speaking of his old man, the son confessed in 
his autobldgraphy that ^uhconaoloualy he had sown 
th# seeda for a future which neither he nor 1 would 
hiive graaped at that time.** (M.£« S4)« Henceforth , 
Adolf Hitler* s attention and einulation was only to 
be evoked by a dominating ruthless man, and if thlia 
man happen^ to be in oppoaitlmi te hlm| then he 
would hate and respect him slmultaneoiisly* Hitler's 
admiration for strongly endurinif- institutions ^^ 
very similar. It se^imsj to his admliratlen foi? his 
sixty- yea^^• aid parent* He wrlt^*j 

- 113 - 

(1) , ♦♦Incredibly vigorous power that 
inhabits this age-old institution (Catholic 
Church) . 

(ii) ...he (Lueger) was dispo8e4*<*to 
secure the favor of any existing powerful 
institutions, tn order tha.% he mi^t derive 
from these old .so\irces of strength the 
greatest possible advantage. *« 

(k) Identification with Mother .- In Hitler's 

' . I • I 11 I II l i I ' l I I II n I . I i l i -li- i I • I • I II f ill 

constitution there is a large gynio (feminine) 
component and he has many feiminine traits, some 
hidden. Consequently, in view of his avowed- love 
for his mother, we must suppose that there was a 
dispositional kinship or biological identification, 
between the two diu7ing the boy's earliest years. 
Adolf naturally and spontaneously felt the way 
his mother felt. This, however, was not of his 
own ittakin^* There is some evidence that in Hitler's 
mind "Germany" is a mystical conception which stands 
for the ideal mother--a substitute for his own im- 
perfect mother. But there are no indications, in 
any event, that Hitler admired his mother or any 
wqman who resembled her, or that he adopted any 
0^ her sentiments^ or that he was even influenced 
by her in any important way.^ Hence, the conclusion 
is that Hitler had many traits in common with his 
mother; but thai? he repudiated these traits aa 
evidences of weakness and femininity, and in so 
doing repudiated her. 

- 114 - 

(k) Rejection' 6f Mother >-" To the extent that 

Hitler respected and emulated his father^ he AlH^ 

respected and denied his mother. Some evidence to 

demonstrate tkis point will be brought forward in a 

later section/ Hitler probably loved his mother very 

much as a person; but his strong dependent attachment 

to her was a humiliating sign t>t his incapacity to 

take Care of himself^ and hence he wad fbrced to be-* 

little the relationship. At eighteen years he was too 

near to her weakness^ not feminine enough and yet not 

male enough, to respect her. He writes: 

(i) I owe much to the time in which 
I had learned to become hard (in Vienna)*. • 
I praise it dven more for having rescued 
me from the emptiness of an easy life (in 
Lih« with his mother), that it took the 
milksop out of his downy nest and gave 
him Dame Sorrow for a foster mother 4'.. 
(M.K. 29). 

'flaAls6lt reports thaf in Vienna Hitler mani- 
fested a ••cjueer idealism aJ)out love^; but had very 
little respect for tiae female Sex. Every woman he 
believed eemld be had. This remark falls in with 
the evidence to be presented later which suggests that 
for a time Adolf wa a indignant with his mother for 
submitting to his father, and Iri the end scorned her 
for so doing. Since he haiel always been 

- X15 - 

contemptuous of physical weakness, one might ejcpept 

him to be contemptuous of women; and there are some 

facts to show that this is true* It is even possible 

that after Herr Hitler's death the adolescent Adolf, 

adopting his father's role to some extent^ sometimes 

lashed his mother with insolent words and maybe struck 

her* If this were true, it would help explain his 

exceeding grief on the occasion of her death, guilt 

contributing to his dejection, and it might explain a 

striking passage in MEIN KAMPP in which Hitler des-* 

cribes the typical lower class family. 

(i) VJhen> at the age of fourteen, the 
young lad is dismissed from school (Adolf 
dropped' school when he was about sixteen 
years), it is difficult to say which is 
worse: his unbelievable ignorance as far 
as knowledge and ability are concerned, or 
the biting impudence of his behavior, com- 
bined with an immorality which makes one's 
hair stand on end, considering his a^ 
(Adolf's immorality came to the notice of 
his teachers atr ^he age of twelve years ) • . • 
The three- 3^6ar- old child has now become a 
youth of fifteen who despises all authority 
(Recall Adolf's conflict with hia father)..* 
Now hj9 loiters about ^ and God o»ly knows when 
he comes home (See p. 7,. •."caused my mother 
much grief, made me anything but a stay-at- 
home").; for a change he may even* beat the 
poor creat\H»e who was once his mother, curses 
God and the worlds.. (M.Kt^ 43-^44) • 

(1) Evidence will be advanced later to show 

that one of the most potent impressions of Hitler's 

early life was that of a r e lationship In which a 

- lis ^ 

a domineering and severe old man (hiaifftthei') bullied 
and flibornfully maltreated a gentle and cbaiplJant woman 
(hi a mother ). The effects of bein^ reai?ed under these 
conditions were lasting: the experience made it im- 
possible for him to believe in, hope for, or enjoy a 
relationship marked by peace, love, and tenderness < 
(m) The outstanding press of the b6y»s early 
life were those of p - Aggression and p •> Rejeotion i 
The former came mostly from his father? the latter from 
many people. Among t;he specific causes of thlis idea 
of having been rejected we would list (1) the birth 
of a younger sister, Paula, in 18^95 or 1896; (2) the 
opposition of his father; (3) his repeated failtires 
at school; 44) his lack of friends; (5) the death 
of both parents, making it necessary for him» a 
penniless xineducated and unemployed orphan, to face 
the world alone. The sense of being rejected by his 
family is in many i>assages expressed in connection 
with his feeling of being excluded from membership 
in the German nation. This point will be taken up 

(i) Are we' not the same as all the 
other Qermans? Do we not all belong' to- 
gether? This problem how began to whirl, 
thrbxigh my little head for the first time. 
After cautioias questioning, I heard with 
envy the reply that not every Geri^n was 
fortiinate enough to belong to Bismardk's 
Reich. This I could not understand. (M.K* 9). 

- lis *. 

(%i) An uhnaturdl separation ffom th« 
great cofnmon Motherland* (M.K.O* 469) • 

(n) Repudiation of ?ast S(9Xf and Pamily Connection a 
Knowing Hitler's fanatical sentiments against mixed 
marriages, impure tlood, the lower classes, and the 
Jewish race , it is important to note the following 

(i) His forebears come from a region in 
which the blood of Bavarians, Bohemians, Moravians, 
Czechs, and Slovakians have mixed for generations* 
Without doubt all of these strains are represented 
in him. V 

(ii) His father was illegitimate; his grand- 
father may have been a Viennese Jew. 

(iii) His godfather, Herr Prinz, was a 
Viennese Jew. , 

(iv) His father had three wives, one a 
waitress, one fi domestic servant, and a number of 
women on the side (hearsay). 

(v) His father begot at least one child 
out of marriage. 

(vi) Kiara Poe^p:|., his mother, was Alois 
Hitler's second cousin once removed and also his ward 
( twenty- thr^e years younger). Special permission from 
the Ch\arch had to be obtained before he coiild marry her. 

- 117 - 

(vll) Angola Hitler, Adolf »i older half* 
sister^, ran a restaurant for Jeaiah students In Vienna • 

(vlll) Paula Hitler^ Adolf »fl younger slater, 
was the xolstreas of a Vlennedie Jew for a while. . 

(ix) A cousin of Hitler's is feehle^minded, 
most of the other members of his clan are Ignorant, 
Illiterate, or mentally retarded « He himself had tb 
repeat the first feBV of Realsohule (Technlbal High 
School) and failed to gradttate. ' 

Thus, Hitler has spent a good part of his life - 
cvirslng and eondexahlng people who belong to his layer 
of society, who resemble members of his own clan ^ who 
have characteristics slMlar to his own. On the other 
hftnd, the Iddal he has det up, the person he pretends 
to be. Is thd exact opposite of all this* We haire a 
fairly clear case, then, of Coimteractloh against 
Inferiority feeXliigs and self -^contempt. Between 
1908, when he' left ^r and 1958, after the AAsehlUscr, 
Hitler ne^er visited his hcme^ and never cdmtnunlcated 
with his relatives (e^tcept In the case of hi « half- 
sister Angela )« TKillke Hapoleon^ hd did not CArtf hlidl 
family along with him aa he ascended to thd heights 
of power* iri thls^we see a Rejection of hlq paat self 
and family connections* 

* 118 • : 

(o) Ide^tif JQetlQQ wlttet aqrn>any «- 51tler'» 
egQCQntrlsm, has always t>een so marked; he has been 
su6h a Bohemian, if not a lone wolf, in many phases of 
his career that his tindoubted devotion to Germany strikes 
one as most unusual* Since this devotion began at an 
early age and was the factor^ more than any other « which 
decided that he would becoiae a supreme success rather 
than an utter failxire, it is worth while noting here 
the forces so far mentioned which brought about this 
intense insociation: 

. (i) Influence of Ludwig poetsch, his 
teacher, who, serving as a substitute father^ 
glorified the history of Gennany and presented 
Bismark's Reich as an ideal, 

(ii) Influence of a strong nationalist 
association among Hitler's classmates, 

(iii) Cathoxis of power. The figures of 
Frederick the Great, Bismarck and others offered better 
foci of admiration than did Austrian heroes. 

(iv) Insociation with a more powerful nation 
satisfied his youthful pride, raised his status in his . 
own eyes, and allowed him to reject his inferior 
A\istrian selfv. 

- 119 -' 

(v) Bfelghtenod cathexls of an dbieot behind 
a biarrier. This la a genej»al principle: that an 
Individual will Ideallae an 6bjedt that he <San not 
quite attain -i- so iiaai» but yet so fa^. In this 
eonneotloh it Is interesting to note that the great 
majority of dictators have not been natives of the 
country that they came to dominate. Hitler's con- 
tinued sympathy for Germans outside the Reich Is evi- 
dently a projection of hi ^ own pelf-pity: s$.«« Ost- 

(v-1) (Memel returns to the 
Reich) I thereby lead you back into that 
home which you havs not forgotten and which 
has never forgotten you* (*0, 614), 

(vl) Displacement of defiance against 
the father* By identifying ^ himself with Germany, the 
boy Adolf found an object eVeit greater than his stem 
father, which permitted him to give vent to his frus- 
trated rebelliousness against his Austrian parent. 

(vii) Gettnany aa a aubstltute mother. 
In v*lew of the press i«ejectlon suffered in childhood, 
it is likeljr — find iduch evldenca fifr thi« hypothesis 
will be prd'sented later -•»• that Germany represented 
a kind of foster parent. It is even possible that 
Hitler as a child entertained a foster parent fantasy. 


Ha speaks of toeing BavaJrlan by bloody a statement.. for 

which there Is no known justification^ This point will 

be fully discussed later in describing his devotions 

to Germany's cause in 1918, the hour of her deepest 

humiliation. In many places Hitler speaks of Germany 

in words that one might use in speaking of a beloved 

• woman; 

(vii - 1) f •the longing grew 
stronger to go there (Grermany) where 
since my eftrly youth X had been drawiqi 
by secret wishes and secret love* 
{U.K. 151). ""^^ 

(vii ^ 2) What I first bad 
looked upon as an impassable chasm 
now spurred me on to a greater love 
for my coxintry than ever before". 
(M^-K. 55) • 

(vii - 3) Heiden^ quoting 
from Hitler: The hiindreds of thou-n 
sands who love their country more 
than anything else must also be 
loved by thair country more than 
anything else. 

(vii • 4) J appeal to those 
who, severed from the motherland, 
have to' fight for the holy treasxire 
of their language., .find who now in 
painful emotion long for the hour 
that will allow them to return to 
the arms of the beloved mother... 
(M.K. 161)^ 

The common expression for German? is Fatherland, 

but Hitler very often subistitutes Motherland, He 

speaks of "the common motherland," "the great German 

- 121 - 

Jiiotherland,*' "the Oerman mother of all life". 
This Is not unnatural^ since he » once a very de- 
pendent adolescent, was left penniless and iinbe« 
friended after the death of his mother. We are . 
not surprised, therefore, to /ind him speaking of 
being removed "from the emptiness of ari easy life, 
that it took the milksop out of his downy nest and 
gave him Dame Sorrow for, a faster mother" and 
speaking also of the time "when the Goddess of 
Misery took me into her arms". It is reported 
that he was mothered by several older Icdies iiri 
his early Munich days afid teemed to find comfort 
in such relationships. In 1920, for example, he 
found a sort of home with Prau Hoffman. He always 
had to send her, according to Hqiden, his latest 
portrait, on which he would write, for example: 
"To my dear> faithful little Mother, Christmas, 
1925, from her respectful Adolf Hitler," 

- 122 - 

1908 - 191S 

The 'chief facts pertinent to the present analysis 
are these: 

1, Klara Hitler was operated on for cancer of 
the breast In the early summer of 1907, On December 
21, 1907, she died. Two months before her death, 
Adolf Hitler went to Vienna and was examined by the 
Academy School of Art. He failed. He moved to. 
Vienna In the winter of 1908, and the following 
October presented himself again at the Academy. But 
the drawings he ,br ought as illustrations of his work 
were considered so lacking in talent that he was not 
allowed to take the examination. He was told he 
would make a better architect than painter, though 
he himself reportis that he was a better colorist 
than draftsman. 

2. Some account of these years has been given 
us by Haniach, a "btmi" from Bohemia who befriended 
him. They were fellow members of the same hostel, 
or flophouse. The first thing Hitler said to Hanisch 
sounds like a projection of (1) press Rejection and 
(2) press Aggression. He said (1) his landlady had 
dispossessed him and now he was without shelter, and 

(2) 1x6 had begged a dxninken man for a few pennies 

but the latter had raised his cane and Insulted 

him. Hitler was very bitter ab6ut this. 

5* Hitler wore a beard during this period and 
in his long overcoat looked very much like a certain 
type of Oriental Jew not uncommon in Vienna. Hitler 
had a n\janber of Jewish acquaintances and sold post-- 
cards that he painted to Jewish dealers, Therd was 
no evidence dtiring these first years of any hostility 
to Jewst Only later, after he had listened excitedly 
to the speeches of the anti-Semitic mayor, Lueger, 
did he beccxne an avowed, and somewhat later a fanatical, 
Anti-Semite himself • 

4. Hitler was exceedingly laiy and procrastinating 
in doing his little water colors during these days. 
He was much more interested in haranguing the other 
Inmates of the hostel on the subject of politics. 
Already he had vague notions of founding a party. 

5« He devoted some time to thinking up little 
devices for making money through trickery. According 
to one informant, his name is in the Vienna police 
records as havifig been accused of theft, and it is 
suggested that his departure for Munich in 1913 was 
prompted by a desire to avoid serving a term in Jail* 

- 124 - 

6. Hitler's friendship with Hanisch came to 

an abrupt end when he accused the latter of stealing 
money from him. This has the flavor of a typical 
Hitlerian projection. 

7. Hanisch reports that Hitler's love for 
Germany and his hate for Austria were vociferously 
expressed on all occasions during these years. 

8. Hitler was shocked by what he saw of sexual 
practices in Vienna. Hanisch speaks of his having 

a purity complex. 

9. According to one informant. Hitler is down in 
the police records of Vienna as e^ sex pervert. 

10. In 1913, Hitler left Vienna and entered the 
country of which he had long yearned to be a citizen. 
He became a resident of Munich. 

11. The press of Rejection is perhaps the out- 
standing feature of the Vienna period. There was in 
the first place the rejection by the Academy of Arts, 
which Hitler felt was based on his inadequate education. 
This left a resentment against intellectuals generally 
which was never stilled. . The following excerpt sums 

up his conclusions on this point. 

^ 125 - 

(I) . Generally/ it Is the chlldx^en of 
higher place,, momentarily well-to-do parents 
who. In turn are deemed worthy of ft higher 

•education. Hereby questions of talent play 
a subordinate rdle. 

Many bther passages speak eloquently of Insults 

to his pride received at the hands of the privileged 

world of the gay capital • 

(i) •••the ^aciously patronizing attitudes 
of a certain part of the fashionable world 
(both in skirts and trousers) whose 'sjrmpathy 
for the people* is at times as haughty as it - 
is obtrusive and tactless. 

(II) Vienna, the city that to so many 
represents the idea of harmless gaiety, the 
festive place for merrymaking, is to me the 
only living memory of the most miserable time 
of my life t 

12* Hitler Spent five years in Vienna. , Living 
as he was, penniless among the penniless of the lower 
class, he himself experienced, and he was in close 
touch with others who experienced, the basic wants 
and viewpoints of the depressed victims of civiliza- 
tion. Here, certainly^ was much food for thought • 
He also attended sessions of parliament and numerous 
political mass meetings, and observed the proceedings 
critidally* Prom the start he was constantly^ pro-^ , 
occupied with the question: why does this pplltlcal 
movement fail and tha^ one succeed? It was natural 
for him to think realistically, and strategically; not 

V}.- • 

- 126 - 

tQ make the common xnlstake of supposing man to bo 
better than he is, and yet taking full account of 
his heroic potentialities, having observed that 
millions of simple untutored men will gladly fight and 
sacrifice their lives for an- ideal vividly presented. 
In addition; Hitler spent many hours in the public 
library looking ov^r histories arid books dealing with 
social questions* MEIN KAMPP proves that the young 
man from Llnz who could not get through Jligh School 
was capable of profiting by what he saw and read, and 
that these five years of drifting and Irregular em- 
ployment were by no means wasted. The flophouse and 
the beer hall were his Heidelberg and University of 
Vienna. He writes: i 

(I) So in a few years I btiilt a foundation 
of knowledge from which I still draw nourish- 
ment today. (M.K# 29). 

(II) At that tiziie I formed an image of 
the world and a view of life irtilch became the 
granite foundation for my actions. (M.K. 30). 

13. For the Vienna period the critical question 

psychologically is this: why did Hitler, living among 

the proletariat, find the developed Ideology of communism 

repellent and the embryonic ideology of fascism appealing? 

The chief determinants of his cholk^e, as they occur to 

me are these : 

i ' 

- 127 • 

(1) Hitler's father belonged to the lower 
middle class. Having moved one riong up the ladder by 
jee^raof effort, his pride compelled- him to draw a 
sharp. line between himself and those below him. No 
one has stated this principle of behavior better than 

his son: 

(1-1) The reason for that 
which one could almost call 'hostility' 
is the fact that a social class, which 
has only recently worked its way up 
from the level of manual labor, fears 
to fall back into the old, but little 
esteemed, class, or at least fears be- 
ing counted in with that class. In 
addition, many remember with disgust 
the misery existing in the lower class; 
the frequent brutality of their dally 
social contacts; their own position in 
society, however small it may be, makes 
every contact with the state of life 
and culture, which they in turn have 
left behind, unbearable* 

This explains why members of 
the higher social cla^s can frequently 
lower themselves to the htimblest of 
their fellow beings with less embarrass- 
ment than seems possible to the 'upstarts' 

For an upstart is anyone who, 
through his own energy, works his way 
up from his previous social position to 
a higher one. 

M>nally^ this relehtlesg "^struggle 
kills all pity » One » s own painful 
Scramble for existence suffocates the 
feelingdf sympathy fo?^ thd misery of 
thosQ left behind^ (M.K. 31-32). 

- 128 - 

V. • * 

Brought up by such a father, it waa natural fop 

Adolf Hitler to envy and admire hia social superiors. 

and look with contempt upon those of a lower station. 

As the American editors of MEIN KAMPP have put it, 

(ii) Hitler, conscious of belonging 
to a higher social caste than his fellow-* 
workers.. .instinctively retreats from the 
idea of accepting solidarity with them. 
(M.K. 55). 

(iii) Hitler had already been identified 
for some years with the German Nationalist movement 
and so his unit of i nsociation (group identification 
and belongingness) was greatly threatened by the com- 
munists ' unit of insociation, the manual workers of 
the world. -The former would lead logically to a 
war between nations, the latter to a war between 
classes. Communism was the greatest enemy of nation- 

,(iv) Parallel to his naturalistic senti- 
ments was Hitler *s enthusiasm for the military, a 
professional class which is antipathetic to 
commianists generally. The former finds its goal in 
Power and Glory j the latter in Peace and Prosperity. 

(v) Hitler had great reverence for the 
strong and contempt for the weak and therefore 
favored a stratified social system, a dictatorship 

- 129 - 

or the elite* There was no compassion In his make- 
up; he had little sympathy for the \inder-dog# His 
Ideology ims founded on the rise to power of nature's 
supermen involving relationships of dominance and 
sulnnlsslon among men. Communism was founded on the 
notion of equality. 

- 130 - 

1914 - 1919 

The record of these years Is conflicting, but the 
following points are prohahly true and pertinent to 

. our theme • 

1. In enlisting in the Army, Hitler became incor- 
porated for the first time. Never before had he been 
an accepted meitibar of a respected institution. This 
was not only a great relief to him, enabling him to 
forget the long series of past failures, but it pro* 
vided a ground for pride and a sense of sectirity. At 
last he and the German nation were one. 

2, There is no evidence that Hitler was ever 
in a front line trench. It seems that he served as 
a messenger and was required to traverse ground 
that was being shelled by the enemy. Hitler, it 
appears, was quick to offer himself for dangerous 
tasks of this kind and was said to be an adept at 
running and then falling or seeking shelter behind 
some obstacle when the fire became intense. In this 
he showed courage. There is nC record, however, in 
the War Department of any episode such as has been 
described in connection with his winning the Iron 
Cross, First Order, Apparently he was awarded this 

- 151 - 

medal aftel- he had left the Front, supposedly 
gassed m one of the last offenalved of the Allies. 

3. Informants have commented on Hitler's marked 
subaerviehce to the Superior officers, offering to 

' do their washing and perform other menial tasks, 
courting their good graces to such an extent that 
his comrades were disgusted. 

4. Hitler Ta3 the only man in his company 
never to receive any nail or package's from home, *nd 
at Chfistmas and other occasions when the others 
were receiving gifts and messages he sulked moodily 
by himself. Here is another instance of press re- 
jection. . . 

5. It is hard to explain the fact that in 
four years of service he was not prompted above the 
rank of corporal. The comment by one of his officers 
that he' was ft neurotic fellow is the only explana- 

tion that has been advanced. • 

6. It seems cej'tain that Hitler was not gassed 

to any serious extent in 1918, but that he suffered 
from a war neurosis, hysterical blindness, which 
also deprived him of his voice and perhaps his 
hearing. This psychosomatic illness was concomitant 
with the final defeat of his Mother Germany, and it 

' V ; ' 1 ":i'*ii- .'f M .-■> :+i- 

.^T- ' -■---■i • ,. 

iV -.• I-Tflll JiT.aSSW i,V>»?H? 


1 '. 


- 153 - 

waa after^'the news of her capitulation- that 
he ^jLad his viaj c:i -of bis tasli.aa aavior. Suddenly 
his sight Vh'as restored. ■?,;.'• - , ■ 

■I ri*" 

"T'T ■■ .■'■■■■ tT.-" ^^^^' V 


Hitler with fellow patients 
at Pa 9 ©walk, 1918 

7. Ih 1918 Hitler, the soldier, became very 
disturbed at 'the surprising amtess of Allied propa- 
ganda and then occurred a" reaction that v/as typical 

of his \vhole character, namely, .to. admire and then 
to- &cq'ali:*e the tachniqT^e powerful opponent* 

{1} V/e had a chance to "become acqueiintad 
- with the "incredible dl^ol-pllnea of our opponents^ 
■# - propaganda/ and still today it la my pri^e to 
^- * hava found tha means •* -f or- beating finally Its 
'^ " 'very makers. Tv^C) years later I ^m maater in 
\\ this <iraft, *: ■ -. "'.;_,_.- ..... ■.- . 


% , '.. 

" . ■^' ."^ 


- 133 - 

1919 - 

Prom 1919 to the present Hitler's doings are 
less obscure then for the periods so far reviewed. 
A great many of the facta are a matter of common 
knowledge and we will not review them in this sec- 
tion here. A few pointa, however, are worthy of 
being highlighted . 

1, For a year or two after his release from 
the military hospital. Hitler was more or less foot- 
loose, "a stray dog looking for a master," according 
to one informant; Undoubtedly there were more 
instances of press, rejection to embitter him. 

2. He was still a member of the Heichswehr 
when his superior officer, discovering his ability 

in public speaking, assigned him the task of indoctrinat- 
Ing the soldiers with the desired ideology. Later 
he was asked to speak to a civilian group. This 
success encouraged him to go further and enter politics 
for life. Hitler's realization that he bad the power 
to away large masses of people was the second crucial 
factor, next to his Revelation in the hospital while 
blind. In determining his cafeer. His phenomenal 
succesB hinged on hlfl mass-rpuaing talent. 

- 134 - 

3. After hearing Pedar speak. Hitler was prompted 

to .join a small group that called Itself the National 

Socialist Worker?. Party. Within a year he was Its 

moving .spirit and sole leader., and it might fairly 

be said that he waa its creator as it now exists, 

the difference betTreen its status before he Joined 

and soon afterwards being so great. 

No doubt Hit?wfar had been making speeches in 

fantasy since his boyhood and had done a good deal 

of informal haranguing throughout this whole period, 

first as the adolescent ringleader of the young 

Nationalists at school, second as a ham politician 

among tlie derelicts of the Vienna slums, and third 

as a corporal behind the lines, but his sudden emergence 

as a spiritual force d\iring the period 1921 - 1923 

brought him into a much magnified sphere of activity 

which was qualitatively different. A selection 

from lilEIN KAMPP, which is unquestionably autobiographical 

in reference, might be quoted here as a hint of how 

the transformation was apperoeived by him: 

In the monotony of everyday life even _ 
Important people often seem unimportant and they 
hardly stand out over the average of their 
surroundings; but as soon as they are faced 
by a situation in which others would despair 
or go wrong, out of the plain average child 
the ingenious, nature grows visibly, not in- 
frequently to the astonishment of all those i*jo 

• .135 ^ 

hitherto had an oppoi«t\inity to ohaerve him, 
who had meanwhile grown up In the smallness of 
bourgeola life, and therefore. In consequence 
of this process, the prophet has rarely any 
honor In his own country. Never Is there a 
l)etter opportunity to observe this than doir In g 
war,' In the hours of distress, when others 
despair, out of apparently harmless children, 
there Shoot suddenly heroes of death-defying 
determination and ley coolness of reflection. 
If this hour of trial had never come, then 
hardly anyone would ever have been able to 
guess that a young hero Is hidden In the beard* 
leiis boy. Nearly always such an Impetus Is 
needed In order to call genius Into action. 
Pate»s hammer stroke, which then throws the one 
^ to the ground, suddenly strikes steel in 
another, and while now the shell of everyday 
life Is broken, the; erstwhile nucleus lies 
open to the eyes of the astonished world. 
(F.K. 402-5). 

4.. It seems clear that It was (1) the defeat of 
Germany and (2) the opposition against which he had 
to strive that acted as Instigators to his behavior 
from then on, which became more and more aggressively 
dominant. The Idea of being a revolutionary was a 
necessary in^etus to action. 

We National Socialists know that with 
this opinion we stand as revolutionaries In 
the world of today, and that we are branded as 
^ auch. But our thinking and acting must not 
be dete groined by the applause or the rejection 
of oxir tlme^ (M.K. 695-5). 

5. Hitler was chiefly attracted during these 
early years to a homosexual, Ernst Roehm, a superior 
officer with an upperclass background. The physical 

- 136 - 

strength and social assurance of Roehm were much 
dnvied and, to have the political backing of such a 
figure, gave Hitler a sense of security. 

6. Up to the famous Munich Putsch, 1923, Hitler 
was conspicuous in his worship of and flattering 
subaervienqe to ranking officers in the Army, especially 
in the^e days in his relations with General Ludendorff , 
but from 1984 on, although he never entirely lost a 
certain ,embarrassment in the presence of his former 
superiors, there was a change from abasement to 
dominance and even arrogance in dealing with aristocrats 

and war lords. 

7, The chief points in his political program 

were these: 

(a) wiping the Versailles Treaty off the 

books, , 

(b) denial of war guilt, 

(c) resurrection of Germany as a military 
power of the first order, 

(d). mllitaris tic expansion, dominated by 
the motive of revepge against the 
Allies, and 

(e) Anti-Semitism. Soon afterward* 

(f ) the purification of the German people 
by a variety of hygienic measures was 
added as an essential aim or policy. 


. 157 - 

8. During the years from 1923 and 1935, Hitler's 
emotional outbursts, his tantrutns of rage and indigna- 
tion, his spells >of weeping and threats of self- 
annihilation increased in f rectuency and intensity. 
This can be partly accounted for by the faot ttiat 
they were effective in bringing his associates 
around to his point of view. Instead of antagonizing 
the group of revolutionists who with hiio were plotting 
tonsxtfp power, these frightful orgies of passion 
served to intimidate them. Everyone sought to 

avoid topics that would bring about the fits. 

9. Among the reasons given in extenuation of 
the cold-blooded purge of 1934 were (a) that the 
victims were disgusting homosextials and (b) that 
they were plotting to snatch the power and superilede 

10. During the last twenty years, nimora have 
periodically arisen and spread to the effect that 
Hitler was enamoured of this or that young woman; 
most of these were either fabricated for one reason 


or another or premature, since the appeal that cer- 
tain women, of the stage particularly, had for Hitler 
was generally short-lived* The one, affair that 
stands out is that with a nineteen- year- old Angela 


- 158 - 

(Oell) Raubal, his niece. Hitler wAa often in her 
company and was pathologically jealoua of any atten- 
tions shown her by other men. .Two informantf have 
stated positively that Hitler murdered the girl, 
but the official report was suicide . Whichever story 
is correct, however, we gain the impression of a 
peculiar and stormy relationship. Rumors have it 
that Hitler's sexual life, such as it is, demands . 
a xmique performance on the part of the women, the 
exact nature of which is t atate secret. 

11. A great deal has been made in Germany of 
Hitler's asceticism, but this, when you, .ccoe down 
to it, amounts to a vegetarian diet, served; him by 
the best chef in' the Reich, and a great variety o/. 
soft driiiks in place of hard liquor* It is said 
that he did not permanently give up meat until after 
the death of his niece Oeli * 


1 , Ego 

According to the criteria we are acouetomed 
to uae In meaaurlng ego strength and structv»re, 
' Hitler's ego Is surprisingly We iik* Here we are 
of cotirsa using the tern ego to apply to an institu- 
tion of the personality (nbt to narclasisBi, or self- 
esteeai). Hitler is cwisplcuously low In the following 

powers : 

^a) Defi<;lent at?lllty to organize and 

coordinate . his efforts . 

(I) During Ms boyhood, especially 
at the time he was living as an Indulged youngster 
m his mother's apartment, Hltle^»d activities :were 
markedly Irregular and aimless. He ti^s unable to 
apply himself except when his impulse prompted him 
to do so» 

(II) Hanlsch reports that in Vienna 
Hitler wis never an^ ardent worker, was. unable to 
get up in the morning, had difficulty in getting 
started, suffered from paralysia of the will. He 
always stepped work the moment he had earned a little 
money, explaining that "he must have some lie dure, he 
was not a eoolle". 


.* X40 . 

(Ill) AciBordlng to Rauschnlng, "H6 
does not know how to work steadily. Indeed, he Is 
Incapable of working. Be gets Idea?, Impulses, the 
realization of which must be feverishly achieved 
and Immediately got rid, of . He does not know what 
It Is to work continuously. Everything about him 
la 'spasm'^ to use a favorite woi?d of hl4B. 

(Iv) Although Hitler prescribes 
disciplined order of work for those about hlm> he ' 
hlniself lives like an artist or Bohemian. lUs habits 
are aa erratic and Irregular as his temper. He may 
go to bed at eleven P*M.,' or four A.M., getting up 
at seven or at noon. He Is rarely p\inctual. 

(v) According to Rauschnlng again; 
"Hitler seems a man of tremendou* will powers but •' 
the appea:pance Is deceptive. He is languid nhd ' 
apathetic by nature, and needs the stimulus of 
nervous excitement to rouse him out of chronic lethargy 
to. spasmodic activity,.." - 

(b) Deficient ability to re golve conflicts. - 
EHltldr ha S; always suffere<f from periods of Indeclslve- 
neas and mental confusion that Inoapacltate him to 
the extent of* being unable to make any. decision or 
come to any conclusion". Then. quite suddenly his • 

.. Ul 

inner voice will speak, but as. a rul^, not until 
the situation has become threatening^ As Roehm says, 
"Usually he solves suddenly, at the .very last moment... 
only beca\ise he vacillates find procrastinates." 
(c) Deficient ability to control emotion . ^ 
His tantrums have been often described., and even 
thought it be admitted that Hi tier, has a capacity 
to turn them on and off as he sees fit, stilly such 
unmanly display of infantile intolerance to frustra- 
tion, or tears and shrieks, is entirely out of a 
keeping with his own ideal of the Jron Supermensch. 
(i) Rauschning: fMy own experience of 
him and what I have learned from others indicate a 
lack of cpntrol amotinting to total demoralization." 

(d) Deficient 6 b.1ectivity >-^lA8tQrtioh of 
human behavior and social events by frequent projec- 
tions giving rise to delusions of; all.»Qrt». 

(e) Disjuhctivitv 6t thought and : speech . - 
All. of Hitler's writing* and reported speeches 
exhibit a disorganization of ideas .^d verbal ex* 
preasion which at times verge's on the pathological. 

(f) Insight deficiency # * Hitlei? has never 
shown any capacity to perceive or admit his errors 
and defects. Part of this, is a ;Conscious determina- 
tion to folloit the policy of denying them, this 
being considered by him politically expedient. 

- X4a - 
(g) Inability to keep his word and jCttlfiH 
oblif^ationa .^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ „^^^^^ ^^^^ 

cards with perfect ease every thing that a moment 
before has passed as a fixed principle.. His political 
attitude is characterized by two things: first, an 
unbelievable capacity to tell fslsehcod, end second, 
a quite disarming naivete, a tot^l innocence of 
promises and assertions. made only a moment before, 
(h) In contrast to these signs of weakness / 
Hitler is high, sometimes very high, on the following 

cr iteria: 

(i) power to dp. what he wants to do and 
has the capacity to do, 

(ii) counteractive restriving, 

(iii) power to resist undesirable coercions 
from society, 

(iv) power to resist dictatorship of ooh- 
ventlonal superego, 

(v) initiative and self-sufficiency, 

(vi) ability to take responsibility and 
C effectively direct others^ 

(vii) long apperceptive span (taking account 

of a distant future in making decisions. 

(i) The situation may be briefly formulated 

by stating that Hitler bperatea on t halamic energy 

rather than o n conacious will en d rational planning.- 

Possessed by fanatical paadion he can accomplish 

things, which those who act on cooler and more moderate 

plan fall to tchleve* Tbff f&tt^, in other worda, 
oomes from the Id, and the ego is tiaed In Ita aei?- 
vice. This comblaatlon i* typical of the g^ngiter; 
hut Hl'tler la different frott th» ordinary type, 
havitts flome of the attributes of the romantic artiat. 
He 1« a compound, say, *f Lord Byron and Al Q&pone, 

2. Id 

Under the term id I am including all unconseioua 

poychic proceaaea — principally affective and 

conatlve proceaaea which emerge suddenly without 

voluntary effort and take poaaeaaion of the ego tout 

alao unconaclous Intellective proceaaea resulting in 

atadden Ji*dffBenta and deciaiona. Such proceaaea are 

an Important part of every man»a paychology* It la 

only when they play a» unuaually dominant rSle in 

determining action that we a tree a them. They are 

especially prominent in the Intuitive type. Hitler 

being one of these, ^tler'a aentimenta Ih tbla 

regard confoi^^ to his behavior* 

(i.) Wa: muat distrust the intelligence 
and the conscience and must place our trust 
m (^ur instincts. We have to regain a new 
simplicity. (Quotfedi by Rauschning). 

(11) ...Qver- educated people, stuffed 
with Imowiedge and intellactj but bare of any 
sound Iniitincts • . • 

« 144 - . 

(111) ,*.0f . secondary Importiince is 
the training of mental aMlltlea. (H.K» 913). 

Hitler's basic assumption, as Max Lesner polnti -■ 

out. Is that there are no logical categories in the 

perception of values but only an lnt\iltlonlsm that 

la Its own principle and Its own Jus tlf' cation. He 

functions. In other words, as does a creative artist, 

which Is unusual in one who chooses politics as his 

field, . It is his dependence on involuntary processes 

that gives rise to hils inability to make dscisions 

about a hundred and one little mattsxis that com^ 

to him in the routine of his daily OfScupation, He 

must -nati upon the spirit'. 

. (Iv) Its the subconscious the work 
goes' on. It matures, sometimes it dleS. 
Unless I haV'e the inner incorruptible con- 
viction: this is the solution, I do nothing. 
Not even if the whole party tried to drive me 
to action. I will not act; I will wait, ho 
matter what hfiippsna. But if the voice speaks 
then I know the time has pome to act. (Quoted ' 
fromi Raus chining )* 

Many a<$qiiaintahO$s have remarked on Hitler^ s . 
periods of abstractlott And r^Very. He "spent his 
time building castles in the air**, Hariiach reports. 
"I had the Impressl^o.n,'' writea RausChnlhg, "that he 
was not listeniftg».*his thoughts ware far away^" 
Another informant, Roberts, believes that Hitler, 

- 145- 

wrapped. up In his dream world, is unaware of a large 
part of the practical activities and even brutalltiea 
ot. hla party. His movements would be impossibly 
without the continued co'operation of men like Goebbels, 
Ooering, and Hlnmler. Because of the tremendous 
downward pull of unconficioua processes Hitler must 
often ptai himself up by the bootstraps, as it were, 
to meet an emergency. 

(v) I go my way with the certainty 
and security of a soitoambullst. 

Among id processes we should stress particularly 
that ^dynamic pattern of energy bolted up in hlin 
which we call the unity and orienting themas. This 
compound of motivations, which amounts to a 
idea* will be fully described later. It is a rigid, 
fanatical, and indurable reservoir 6f the thalamltJ 
energies which, on release,, have two or threa times 
the potency that a normal man brings to bear upon any 
one reasonable objects The ego Is in collaboration 
with this unconscious complex,, operates In its service, 
and can, within limits, call it intd play or check 
it momentarily. On appropriate ocoasions, indeed. 
Hitler makes, good "use of his capacity to be possessed 
by the complex. He dramatizes it, whips it up, and 
intoxicated by the worda that pour out of his mouth, 
deliriously gives vent to his passion. 


- 146 - 

Also characteristic of one who so readily aeqtdeacea 
to the deml-\irge la Hitler •s superatltlousness, his 
feeling that he la an object of divine protection^ 
his tendency to Interpret striking events as slgna 
or omens of success or failure* Like many a rellglotis 
leader he Is said to hear voices and see spirits. 
Here we would compare him to Joseph Smith, the founder . 
of Mormonlsm, the chief difference being that Smithes 
voices gavd him permission to free the sex Instinct, 
whereas Hltler^s volces^ncburcige brutality and 
destructlont Hitler also bears compiarlson to Mary 
Baker Eddy* 

i; Hysteroid Personality .^ It Is clear from 
what has ^een said that Hitler has manifested many 
features of the hysteroid type of make^up# Besides 
the definitely recorded hysterical attack of blindness 
and iaphonia (In 1918), there are his paroxysms of 
emotion, his hallucinations, coming out of nightmares, 
his sudden revelations and hearing of Inner voices, 
and the periods of day-dreaming and abstraction, all 
of which are reminiscent of hysterics, inspired and 
uninspired, of which the history of religion furnishes 
so many striking examples. Here he might be likened, 
perhaps, to Joan of Arc. 


- 147 • 

. &• Schizophrenic Festva^ea .^ It will be made^ 
clear ad we go on that Hitler is possessed by a 
complete seini^deltisional system characteristic of 
paranoid schizophrenia. Beside this, many of the 
symptoms which have been listed in the previous! 
paragraph tinder hysteroid personality are also 
typical of schizoid states* . The enormous banked--up 
hate and revenge fulness "in the man and the acts of 
cruelty i*iich he is able to execute apparently with* 
out the normal recriminations of conscience are also 
symptomatic of schizophrenia • 

Although it might be said that Hitler is an 
hysteric on the verge of schizophrenia, and this 
may be truer today than it was a while ago, still 
it must be acknowledged that conditions in Germfiny 
have been such and the man^s success in imposing his 
delusional system on his fellow coiintrymen has been 
so phenomenal that he has remained within the 
boundaries of technical sanity* 

3. Superego 

Iti fBems deary that Hitler in not an amoral 
brute like Qoering or the majority of his followers, 
that is to say, his close ^follQWers* Be has a super- 
ego but it is repressed, tbie mechanisms of the ego 

- 148 - 

being set up against its interference. The con- 
ditions that usually prevail might be described ai 
an alliance between the ego and the Instinctual 
forced of the id against the dictates of the super^ 
egoe A g|*eat deal of endppsychic energy is wrapped 
up in this effort to repress and deny the superego 
and the guilt feelirigs that it gives rise tOe Its 
activity, however, can he Judged by (1) the vehemence 
of his affirmations of brutality (and thus his denial 
of conscience), (2) the Justifications that he feels 
called upon to give when his actions are particularly 
repellant to the conscience of. his world, and (3) 
certain syinptons that are generally recognizable as 
indications of unconscious superego activitye 

Surely Hitler is speaking of himself as well 
as of others when he writes: 

(i) Only when the time comes when the 
race is no longer overshiidowed by the. conscious- 
ness of its own guilt, then it will find internal 
peace and external energy to cut down regard- 
lessly and brutally the wild shoots, and to 
pull up the weeds • 

That Hitler sees himself as the destroyer of an 

antiquated Hebraic Christian superego is shown by many 

passages : 

(ti) I am freeing men from the restraints 
of an intelligence that has taken charge; from 
the dirty and degrading modifications of a 


- X49 . 

chimera called conscience and morality, 
and from the demands of a freedom and 
personal Independence which only a very . 
few can bear. 

(Ql) We must be ruthless • We must 
regain our clear conscience as to ruthlessmess. 
Only thus shall we purge .our people of 
their softness and sentimental Philistinism^ 
and their degenerate delight In beer- swilling. 

(Iv) I recognize no moral law In 

(v) Conscience Is a Jewish invention* 
It is a blemish like circumcision. 

ObvlOtisly Hitler Is posing here as the Nletzschean 

Antl-Chrlst who Is going to create a new superego 

for mankind^ the exact antithesis of that which has 

prevailed since the establishment of Christianity. 

This pose, however, is for the benefit of his close 

followers such as Rauschning, who has recorded the 

above aasertions.' **Moral commonplaces,^ he affirms, 

''are indispensible for the masses. Nothing is 

more mistaken than for a politician to pose as a 

non-*moz^l superman. ** The tenor of many of Hitler's 

public speeches, however, prcmM that he has not 

entirely conquered his superego, acquired during 

early years tander the influence of his pious mother, 

the Catholic monaaj^ery at Lambach, and his teachers 

at school. 'The following may be taken a^ examples 

of an \mqulet conapience: 

- 150 - 

(vl) It (Storm Troop) did not want ^ 
to establish violence as its aim, but it 
wanted to protect the messengers of the 
spiritual aim against oppression by violence. 
(K.Kt 790) • 

(vii) However, I did not wish to 
carry out my purposes by force, instead I 
did my utmost to accomplish my ptirpose by 
persuasion alone. 

(vtii) It never has been my in- 
tention to wage wars, but rather to buildt## 
(M.N.Ot 836). 

(ix)' I forbade the sacrifice of 
more human lives than was absolutely 
ndcessary. (Speaking of the war with 
Poland* M.N,0. 723) • - 

There question that Hitler succeeds in 

repressing his superego most of the time. He has 

consciously and openly committed most of the crimes 

on the calendar, so much so that the diagnpsis 

, '^psychopathic personality" or "moral imbecile" seems 

almost justified; however, there are many indica* 

tdLons that a superego of sorts operates unconsciously. 

After the bloody purge of 1934, for example, it is 

said that he was not able to sleep quietly for weeks. 

At night he prowled restlessly up and down. His 

expressions and feazftd nightmares can be explained 

in part^ as rissultants of disquieting guilt feelings • 

Also to be included in this category are his frequent 

thoughts of suicide. These are often avowed, to be 

* 151 - 

/ • 

\ . . . , 

8ure^ wl1;h the purpose of linpresslng hlis close fDllbw-^ 
ers, but they are also In conformity with an unconscious 
tendency. According to our hypothesis^ In fact^ we 
would attribute a good many of Hitler's latisr acts of 
aggression to his superego. They are crlmetf ti3 
appease conscience. Bavlh^ once started da a career 
of brutality^ he can only' c^ulet the palrt of a bdd 
conscience by gpink on with ever greater ruthlessness 
to aohley e ' successes ^ and so to'ddmohstrate to him- 
self and ' others that dod at^proves of him and his 
methods t This dynamism^ however, can work only Irj 
so far^s his ^ggrecislons are successful; that Is, 
only good fortione can prove that conscience (anticipa- 
tory anxletsy) was wrong --^ there was nothing to be 
afraid of after all. Failure will undoubtedly be 
followed by gtillt feelings. 

Further evidences of superego -activity can be 
found In the charactisr pf the' pi^ojectlons so common 
In Hitler's speeches and writings, as we shall now 
show* ,^ 

I ... 


/ -152^ 

4. Ego Defenae Mechanlsma: Pro.^eetlon » 
6y ffep the moat common form of defenae mechanlrflm 
in Hitler 'a peraonallty ia that of projeiitlon. Thla 
worka in the aervi^e of aelf-eateem, in blinding him 
both to hia guiltineaa and to hla inferiority. There 
ia no record of any caae in which thia. proceas ia 
uaed ao often and ao intenaely. It operate* ao 
promptly and conaiatently, indeed, that by paying 
cloae attention to the objecta that gitler acoma 
and-obndemna one gets a fairly accurate and <?ompre- 
henaive view of hia own id. HLb caae ia rather un- 
uaual in that he haa conacioualy adopted and 
furthered what was once no doubt a purely unconacioua 
mechanlam. For example, he aaya, "As aoon aa by one»» 
own propaganda even a glimpae of right on the other 
aide is admitted the cauae for doubting of one 'a own 
right ia laid." The necessary corollary to this 
proposition would bS: As soon as one's 6wn wrong 
is admitted the cause for doubting the wrong of 
oneU opponent is laid. He also has enough know- 
ledge to realize that accusations are evidences of 
guilt, for he says, "If they now say that this is the 
signal that Germany now wants to attack the entire 
world, I do not believe that this is meant seriously: 


- 163 - 

such could QDly be tho expression of a bad conscience." 
— * a rental rkabXe statement to be made by the world's 
greatest projector. 

Two or three Illustrations would suffice to make 
plain th* nature of Hitler *8 projections, but they 
represent such' unique descriptions of himself that a 
larger collection of examples will be of interest to 
psychologists • 

(i) In Vienna, Hanisch tells ixB, Hitler 
wore a long coat given him by a Jewish friend, ^an 
incredibly greasy derby on the back of his iMad. 
His hair was long and tangled, and he grew a beard 
on his chin such as we Christians seldom have, though 
one is not uncommon in* • .the Jewish ghettos •••Hitler, 
at that time looked very Jewish, so that I often 
joked with him that he must be of Jewish blood, 
since such a large beard rarely grows on a Christian's 
chin*** ' 

Compare this to Hitler ^s accdurit of the first 
conspicuously Jewish person he met in Vienna. "I 
suddenly came upon a being clad in a long cliftan, 
with black curls* Is this also a Jew? was my first 
thought^*' Then he goes on to list the rejiellent 
traits of the Jew: ^Later the smell of these caftan 

- 154 - 

wearers often made zae 111. Added to this was their 
dirty clothes and their none too heroic appearance." 
Recalling Hitler's immorality at school and the fact 
that he is down (according to one Informant) in the 
Vienna police records as a sex pervert, the following 
statement is pertinent: "Aside from the physical 
•uncleanlineas, it was repelling suddenly to discover 
the iboral blemishes of the chosen people." 

(ii) Hitler was charged with theft in 
Vienna, according to one informant, and yet Hitler 
broke off his friendship with Hanish by wrongfully 
accusing him of having misappropriated a water color 
of his worth fifty Kronen. ^ 

(iii) In Wly life Hitler oscillates 

between extreme energy and utter listlessness, and yet 

Hitler: "All passivity, all 
inertia •••is senseless, inimical to 

(iv) Hitler has never admitted to being 
wrong. According to the Nazi creed. Hitler is always 
right, and yet -- / ' 

Hitler: "These Impudent ras6als 
(intellectuals) who always know every- 
thing better than anybody else.*^" 

"The intellect has grown autocratic, 
and has become a disease of life." 

- - - 155 - 

(v) Hitler has often affirmed that he waa 
governed by inatlnct and int\aitlon rather than by 

Hitler: "The people.,. are so 
so feminine in their nat\irs and .' 
attitude that their activltieo and 
thoughts are motivated leas by apber 
considerations than by feeling and 

(vi) Roehm has said; "He doesn't even 

seem to be aware how dishonest he is."' By now the 

whole world agrees that' Hitler is a monumental liar. 

Hitler t "what a race (Jews); 
As such they have been nailed down 
forever... the great masters of lying."' 

. • -b • 
(vii) Hitler has a way of staring at people 

as if he were attempting to hypnotize them. 

Hitler; "They,, .tried to pierce 
me even with their eyes. Innumerable 
faces were turned toward toe with 
Sullen hatred," 

(viii) Hitler's favbrite entertainment 

is to witness private performances of . naked dancing. 

Hitler; "Chicherin -* arid with 
him a staff of over two hundred Soviet 
Jews --visits the cabarets^ watches 
naked. dancera perform for his pleasure,,*" 

(ix) Below I have lieted a m?.scellany 

of Hitler's statements which are more acciorate as 

descriptions of himself than they are of others. 

- 156 - 

a. In such hours I had 
sad forebodings and was rilled with 
a depresslnR. fear. 1 was faced by 
a doctrine TsoclAl Democrats) consisting 
of egoism and hatred; It could be 
victorious, following mathematical 
laws, but at the same tlire It could 
bring about the end of mankind. 

b« Social Democracy.., directs 
a bombardment of lies and calumnies 
towards the adversary who seemed most 
dangerous, till finally the nerves of 
those who had been attacked give out 
and they, for the sake of peace, bow 
down to the hated enemy. 

c. They (opponents at Nazi 
meetings) resembled a powder keg that 
might blow up at any moment, and to 
which the burning fuse has been attached. 

d. -For his (the Jew's) entire 
activity is unrestricted by moral obliga- 

e. I talked until my tongue was 
weary and till my throat was hoarse. .. 
of the destructiveness of their Marxist 
doctrine of irrationality. p 

f. ...we will not let the Jews slit 
our gullets and not defend ourselves. 

g. (Jew). ..the higher he climbs, 
the more alluringly rises out of the 
veil- of the past his old goal, once 
promis'^d to him, and with feverish 
greed he watches in his brightest heads 
the dream of world domination step 
into tangible proximity. 

h. They (Marxists) began to treat 
us as genuine chief criminals of humanity. 

1, For this peace proposal of mine 
I was abused, and personally insulted. 
Mr. Chamberlain, in fact, spat upon me 
before the eyes of the world... 

• X57 - 

1. •*.lt was in keeping with our -own 
harmleesnesfl that England took the JpJJ^y 
of some day meeting our peaceful activity 
with the brutality of the violent egoist. 

)t. ...the outstanding features;^ of 
Polish bharacter were cruelty and lack or 
morjBl re9tj*alnt. 

The intensity and frequency of these projections 
amply justify the diagnosis of paranoid delusion. 


5. idea lego 

The Idealego, as we define It, is a compound 
of images, engendered in the mind of the subject, which 
represent what he would like to be, his level of aspira- 
tion, his best self at the height of his career, the man 
reaching the goal of his ambition. The idealego may 
be the figure of a master criminal or that of a great 
benefactor or prophet, its exact nature being dependent 
upon a host of factors stemming from the Id, ego, and 
superego. lii Hitler's case it is clear that the ideal- 
ego is the aominant force of his conscious and un- 
conscious life. We shall discuss, it presently in 
connection with his major configuration of drives and 




Aa a rule it is difficult to demonstrate a 
clear-cut integration of evert drives and sentiments 
ir) an individual, either (1) becavise the majority of 
people are not integrated according to a very fixed : 
and consistent pattern or (2) because the configurations, 
such as they are, are not wholly discernible, important 
elements being repressed and lonconscious to the subject. 
We use the term orienting thema to include both conscious 
and unconscious elements. In Hitler's case, however, 
it is not expedient to make a distinction between the 
major configurations of overt drives and sentiments 
and the orienting thema, because the latter has been 
made explicit in word and deed ftid is of a relatively 
consistent and obvious type. Hitler is one of the 
relatively few men who has largely lived out his fantasy. 
The main elements of his major configuration are the 


X. f>68itiv9 Cathexis-^ of power 

Hitler's' sentiments in favor of power as opposed 
to all forms of weakness may bo divided into (a) cathexis 
of powerful nations and (b ) cathexis of powerful rulers • 

* Posikve cathexis - value, attraction, power to evoke 

love, respect. 
Negative cathexis « the reverse: power to evoke 
. aversion, scorn, hate. 

- 169 - 

' (1) Poaitive cathexls of powerful gfoupa 
(natlona ). » 

The vety first enthusiasm entertained by the boy 

Hitler iras an ftdnilratl on for Germany. We have already 

noted his membership In the itatlonallst movement as a 

school boy and listed the determinants of this enthusiasm. 

The following quotations will Illustrate the persistence 

of this attitude In later life. 

a, Hanlsch: Hitler always took the 
Government's, part.. .Invariably approved 
of all such violent methods as necessary 
for the Stabs* s sake. 

b. Hitler: In Vienna I continued 
as I had done before, to follow up all ' 
events In Gisrmany with the fiercest enthusi- 
asm, no matter whether political or 
cultural questions were concerned. With 
proud admiration I compared the rise of 

the Reich with theadecllne of the Austrian 
State. (M.K, 69-70). 

c. Hitler: Pxoissla, the germ cell of 
the Reich, was created by resplendant 
heroism and not by financial operations 

or oom^rclal affairs, and the Reich Itself 
. was in turn only the most glorious reward 

of political leadership and military death- 
defying courage. (M.K. 201). 

It was Hitler/ s love of power that attracted him 
to the history of Great Britain. 

d. Hitler: No nation has more care- 
fully prepared its economib conquests 
with the sword with greater brutality 
and defended it later more ruthlessly 
than the British. (U.K. 189). 

- 160 - 

e. Hitler: England did not conquoi? 
India toy the way of Justice and law: she 
conqaiored India without reig^rd to the 
wishes, to -the views of the natives, or 
to their formulations of justice, and, 
when necessary, she has upheld this 
suppremacy with the moat, toiratal ruthlesi- 
hess. (M.N.O. 103). 

Hitler has always admired the ruling classes 
everywhere as Opposed to the underprivileged. 

f. Hitler: Our big industrialists 
have worked their way to the top by 
reason of their efficiency. In virtue of 
this seliection, which merely proves their 
higher race, they have a right to lead. 

(ii) positive catheacia of powerful individuals 
(rulers) . , 

It is difficult to say whether it was the figure 
of a powerful individual or the vague sense of a power- 
ful class or nation that first excited Hitler's admira- 
tion, tout certainly in ti^' co\arse of his life there 
have toe en a series Of heroes who have stirred his enthu- 
siasm a^^, shaped his ego ideal. Among these may be 
mentioned his teacher of history, Ludwlg poetsch; the 
fervent antli- Semitic, -Georg von Schoenerer; the Viennese 
mayor, Karl Lueger; Richard Wagner; Frederick the Great; 
Bismarfek; the Kaiser; and Mussolini • >: ) 

a.'^' Hi tie J?: It Infuriated me 
even more. than the Viennese Press... 
expressed its objections against the 
German Kaiser. ..Such things made the 
toiobd rush to my head. 

- X6X - 

b. flanlsch: He said. ..Wagnex* 
was a nghtar^ there was more greatness 
and power in Wagner. 

c. Over Hitler's desk han^s a 
portrait of Frederick the Great, ^^i°l 

■ all Germany's historic characters. Hitler 
has chosen as his hero. 

d. Heiden: Roehm's frank hrutal 
energy iJdemed to inspire ft blissful 
sense of security in Hitler. 

e. Hitlert In those dayii -- I 
admit it openly — I conceived the most 
orofound admiration for the great man,. • 

. what will rank Muddolini among the great 
of this earth is the determination not 
to share Italy with Marxism. 

The figui^e of power admired by Hitler is marked 

by cournge, fldlitary valor, brutality, and absence of 

sympathy or compassion, tt is characteristic 6f him 

to interpret humane feeling a s weakness . 

2, Heed for t)eferenc e toward t»6wer« 
Differing from "a good many other would-be dicta- 
tors or revolutioniata. Hitler <ai8plftyed, and still to 
some extent displays, a marked deference towards his 
superiors, exhibiting thereby, no doubt, a pattern 
that he was forced to adopt in the presence of his 

overbearing father. , 

(i) Heiden: Subordination he took 
seriously down to the smallest details r to 
respect one's superior officers, never to 
contradict, to submit blindly. Hitler dis- 
llBj^l swvile solicitude for the clothes 
boots fltnd food of his superior officers . 

i si^ g ^ g es 

(ii) Strassei?.":. Hitlei:*'^ attitude towarda 
the General wa3 obsoqyi^^^J. ^^ was In agreesienf ■ 

with. everything Lxiden^orff said* 

Hitler and Presiflent Hinde^nbui^s 
on the Dsy of Pot^dscm ■ 
' March J 1933 

/ ■. , •;'.[LT.::/^.r. : '^ w>zj>r^;5.;*y: *'+?i7>« *.'^ -z':*;- .it*. <r; .^v. : -■^\. vj ,r^. '•"^V^?^*^' V •¥. f-'fir'V*" ■ ' 

>li'ijV*"'i- i:r ^ '4 s " ; A-^\-- t.'^.^.fM w.' , 

^il53 - 

Ji .., 

Kote the subaervierice of 
. Hltlei? 'a "boiw* 

•"!■ (ill) • Eeiden: In the midst of the Munich 
Putsch Hitler exclaimad to Kahi- in a hoarsa 
vole©!.' "Bxesllency, I will stand behind joii as 
raithfvinT as a ao^!". 

(iv) Lamia: In the; coui-s^ of his perora- 
tion he. came to apaak of. Generals Ludendoi?ff 
. -J and von' Seeckt; at such momenta ho. stood at 

attention arid trvmip^ted forth the words "genei^al 
,, and "ESccellency'^ It mads no difference that 

one of the generals was on his sld^, -while the. 
other, von Seeckt, commander-in-chief of the 
Reichayrehr, was his eriemyi he- abahi^ on ad himself 
entirely to the pleasure of pronouncing the hlgh- 
- . sounding titles* Ha never said "General Seecict , 

he said "His Excellency, Herr Kolonal General 
* ' ■ von Seeckt", letting the words melt on hLs tongue 
- -H atid savoring their after-taste. At this moment 

;. he was the typical profesalonal sergeant. 

■^.' 5, Nepsative Cathajcls' of "Weafcnesa . 

Eitler'a, sentliuents ih^ this category are the 
'• ; natural completots of his. high positive oathexis for 
,, power. A' few illiAstrations will suffice. 

• 164 - 


(i) Hitler: A atiPonger generation will 
drive out the wenkllnga, becaiase in its 
ultimate form the urge . to live will again 
and again break the ridiculous ^fetters of a 
so-called "humanity" of the Individual, «" 
that its place will be taken by the "humanity 
of nature, which destroys weakness in order 
to give its place to strength. 

(ii) mtler: ...these upper layers 
(of intellect\iaU) Ift^ the necessary will 
power. For will power is always weaker in. 
these . secluded intellectual circles than in 
the masses of the primitive people. 

(iii) Hitler: .. .the Jewish 
Christ-Creed with its effeminate pity-ethics. 
(Rausohning) ♦ 

(iv) Hitler: Anybody who is such a 
poltroon that he can't bear the thought of 
someone near by having to suffer pain had 
better join a sewing- cirale, but not my 
p^rty comrades. (Rauschning) . 

(v) Hitler: Unless you are prepared 
to be pitiless, you will get nowhere^ Our . 
opponents are Aot prepared for it, not because 
they are humane... but because they are too 
weak. (Rauschning). 

4, IdealegOy Powerful Individual . 

Tlie process involved here is n»er.ely that of 
the internationalization of the positively c»t;)iect?ed 
powerful individual described above . What was orice 
external became internal and was accepted as the goal 
of endeavor. Around this central notion- of the. powerful 
individual there has developed an ideology based on 
the so-called aristocratic principle in nature. The 
final conception is that of a super superman, leader 

- 165 - 

of a nation of supermen who govern the globe. This 
notion is deeply imbiadded in the German character as 
a result of (1) the autocratic position of the father 
in (i^rman family structure; (2) systematic indoctrina- 
tion in the home and in the schools; and (3) the 
position of Germany among the European nations, a 
powerful community encircled and for a long tinie 
eclipsed in power and glory by Prance and then Great 
Britain. The main source's of Hitler's ideology are 
such men as Carlyle, through his life of Frederick the 
Great, Oobineau, Wagner, Houston Stewart Chamberlain, 
Nietssche, and Georges Sorel ( fteflexjohs eur la Violeftce) . 
Not that Hitler read all or even most of these alatho^s 
but their ideas were transmitted to him through various 
secondary sources li^ch he read ea^rly and took to 
heart during his years in Vienna. 1?he follo^ng 
quotations give an outline of Hitler's philosophy, 

(i) Hitler: ...most important, 
precondition in life — namely, the necessity 
to be strong. ;( 526) ♦. 

Cii) Hitler, quoted by Rauschningj 
But fortune follows where there is a. firm will. 

* (iii) Hitler: Always before Gbd and 
the world the stronger has the right to carry 
through what he will. (M.N. 0. 50). 

<iv) Hitler, quoted by Rauachning: 
Brutality is respe<sted. Brutality ftrtd physical 
strength. 'The plain man in the street respects 

- 166 ^ 

nothing but brutal strength and ruthleasne ja . 
"SrsT^Via la an excellent e^f°Pl« ^f ^"^ J" 
p?ijeition and sums up in a nutshell the crux 
of Hitler's personality. ) 

(v) Hitler: In the end, only the urge 
for selfipreservatipn will ;*^??;°«^J;y ^j^^^^ 
Under its pressure so-called "humaniry", aa 
the expression of. a mixture of stupidity, 

cowardice , an imagintiry a^PJ^^SLiS siJ ^ ' 
will melt like snow under the March sun. 

(U.K. 175). 

(vi) Hitler: Every view of life,., 
will remain without Importance... unle»»J^? 
.principles have become the. banner of a fighting 
movement. (M.K. 675). 

rvll) Hitler: Terror is not t)roken by 
power ofilnd but by terror. (K.K. 494-5) . 

(viii) Hitler: The terror in the work- 
shops, in the factory in ^^^lH^^l^Hi^Vi^ 
on occasions of mass demon st rat lops ^l\l^'^l'^ 
S" accompanied by success aa long as i^^s «<>| . q. 
met by aS equally great force and terror. <M.K. 58). 

$. Social Idee t ; t>6Werful Folk. 
One will not be able to understand Hitler's 
personality, its extraordinary force, its maintenance 
this side insanity, and its influence on the German 
people witiliut taking full account of hia emotional 
identification with an ideal Germany a a he concelvea 
It and the dedication of his efforta to the creation 
of such a Germany. The prlnciplea of hia program are 
expressed in the following series of quotations : 

- 167 - 


(I) Hitler, quoted by Rauachnlng: There 
will be a Herren<*Cla$s, an hlatorloal class 
tempered by battle and welded from the moat 
varied elements* 

(II) Hitler: ... (The Polklsh view) feels 
the obligation In accoi«dance with the Eternal 
Will that dominates thla universe to promote 
the victory of the better and stronger, and to 

. demarid the stibmlsslon of the worst and the 
weakar. (H.K. 580). 

(ill) Hitler: We recpgnlBe that free- 
dom can eternally be only a consequence of 
power and that the source of power Is the 
will. Consequently, the will to powei* must be 
strengthened In a people with passionate ardor. 
(M.N.O. 24). 

(Iv) Hitler: Hia (Youth's) entire 
education and development has to be directed at 
giving him the conviction of being absolutely 
superior to the others. (M.K. 618). 

(v) Hitler: The parliamentary principle 
of decision by majority, by denying the authority 
of the person and placing in its stead the member 
pf the crowd in question since against the 
arlatocratic idea of Natiire, (M.K. lOS). 

(vi) Hitler: We want to be the supporters 
of the dictatorship of national reason, of 
national energy, of national — brutality and 
resolution. (M.N.O. 66). 

(vil) ffiLtler, quoted by Rauschfiing: One 
tbfe% is and. remains eternally the same: foroe« 
Bnplres are made by the isword, by superior force — 
not by alliances* 

What must bi9 pointed out here Is (1) that Hitler 

came in to Qerm^y as an outsider .(h« was not reared 

in the system), (2) that he started operating with a 

relatively sli«pl«, clear«»cut, fanatically held conception 

- 168 - 


Of the proper eocial, pattern, (3) that ha atartea with 
a. small nucleus and built a rapidly growing party 
according to his preconceived social ideal, (4) that 
this, party usurped power and spread to Include most 

of the nation: 

(viil) Hitler: The N. S. G. W, P. must 
not be the masses' slave, but their master! 
(M.K. 698). 

and, finally, (5) that Hitler's social.ldeal is not 
confined to the German people within the national 
boundary but to the German folk or race wherever 
they are. It is a world dominion that he envisages 
by people that are cons titutionally alike. 

What we have here in the slpplest terms is the 
Master-Slave pattern of social relationships to the 
exclusion of all other patterns. What is most distinc- 
tive is not the presence of this idea,, which is as old 
as the history of man, but the absence of other patterns, 
' the complete substitution of contempt for sympat;hy. 

• 6, Need for Dominance. Ru thless Will to Power. 

Hitler's positive oathecatlon of a powerful, 
nation and a powerful ruler has been described, as 
well as his creation of a social ideal in which Power 
was to be carried to Its furthe.^t point. His deference, 
even obsequiousness when face to face with representa^ 
tlves of power has also been described. What we have 

- 169 - 

now to deal with 18 the problem of the gradual change . 
of emiAaaia frtnn deference to dominance. We can say, 
I think, with aome jxustlflcatlon that If F^tler»e Ideal 
aoclal pattern had existed In Germany, that the nation 
had been under the. dictatorship of an iron man, he might 
have been willing to take his place In the eyatem aa a 
aubordlnate, Juat aa he did aa a 'corporal in the army, 
but the fact that av^ch a aoclal pattern was not in 
operation atimulated him to Inaugurate it. He became 
diaaatlafied with one political leader after another, 
Kahr, Ludendorff , etc., and by degrees forced himself 
into the rfile that according to his scheme somebody 
must fill. It is as if a masochlst, finding no one 
to play a i^e auffioiently aadiatic to gratify his 
eroticism, were to decide to adopt that r^e himself. 
we have to take account here of the possibility of 
vicarious pleasure in either rSle. Listening to flitlei^'s 
words, wo often get a certain sense of his Idehtlflca- 
tlbn with the aadist whe^ he is adopting the 'submissive 
r^e, <^d his identification with the masochlst when he 
la acting as a brutal tyrant. To exj^laih the identifica- 
tion with the sadist, we must assume an elementary heed 
for domlnanae, or wiU to power,'which gets aatisfied 
in this roundabout Way. Anyhow, it Is clear that as 

- 170 - 

timdv went on during the years after World War 1, 

Hitler's attitude unden&ent some modification. Prom 

the obtrusively submissive corporal he became the 

obtrusively dominant leader of a party. 

(i) Heiden: ,..(Aa time i^ent oh) he felt 
himself superior to his re cognized superiors. 
The obedient soldier was transformed into one 
who knew better, the \anderling into one who 
c«tild do things. better, . 

This change was concomitant with Hitler* a 
discovery of his own oratorical powers. He gave 
way more and more to the demon within him. The ambi- 
tious sadist, his infantile belief in omnipotence 
beihg reactivated by the hyaterieal approval of the 
masses, came into his own, We are dealing here with 
a personality who enviously admires his enemies. His 
enemies are those who dominate ahd oppose and frustrate, 
him with, force. He hates the person who embodies 
this force but he worships the force and as ao patterns 
himself on the object of "his hate. This explains 
why Hitler was attracted to tha Marxists and their 
methoda for gaining power. 

(13) turner : He want to school not only 
to the Marxists. He has a great admiration for 
the organization and UJethods" of the Catholic 
Church. He speaks again and again of ^o^ "^J J. . 
he learned by studying the propaganda the British 
used during the war. And he expresses admiration 
for American advertising technique. ^ 

4 in* 

(ill) . Hitler: Wd had a chance (dNirlng 
World War I) to becoiie acquainted irtth the In- 
credible discipline cf our oppunents V propagandli . 
And still today It is «y pr^de to have f otind the 
means. .^f or beating flnnlly Its very laairers. 
Two years later I iHiar" isAster In his craft. 

The picture^ we get here la that of a man who, 

like a great number of Oermana, entertains the ooncep-^ 

tlon of an Iron man who will save Germany, and wonders 

at the aaise tlaie whettier he hlii^elf has not the neCeisary 

genius to be Ihet Ircn manv . A$ time went on. Hitler 

oane more and more to Identify himself with the hero, 

but even at th» mcmee^ ijlrtrt he mtta approaching the 

very stonnli o^ his power he was- overcome. with mlSt 

glvlngs. perhap* he was not thla superman but merely 

the mrldge to the superman, as Hie tsssche often said 

of himself. 

(iv) Hitler r We aM are. In a small wayj 
iltee St* John^ (the Baptist). I wait for Christ I 

(v) ^tier, quoted by Rauscbningj The 
hew map. 1* among \i|>t He is hare I Sow are you 
satisfied? I will tell you a secret* I have 
seen ttof Vlsieh of the new mien '- fearlesa and 
formidable. X shrank f rem |ilml 

(9#B« Eete Is a suggestion tb^t 
b^yond^ the exercise of pdw«if there Is a grd&ter 
enjoyment -- shrinking before a still greater 


- 173 V 

7* Ideptlfl cation wltii MemXQgo * 

A few quotations will be sufficient t^o show the 

extent of Hitler's Identification with hla <nm (and 

the average Genoan's) Idealego. 

(I) Hitler, quoted by Jhiasell: 

Who won the canipaign in Poland? 

I dldl 

I- ■ 

Who gave the orders? 

X dldl 

■ Who had all the strategic ideas 
which made victory possible? 

I dldl 

Who ordered the attack? 

Ich, Ich, Ich, IchI 

(II) Hitler, addressing Schuschnlgg, 

quoted by Puchs: 

Do you not realize that you are in 
the presence of the greatest German ever- 
\ known to historyl 

(ill) Hitleri I am one of the hardest 
men Germany has had fm decades^ perhaps fbr centuries, 
equipped with the greatest authority of any German 
leader.. .but above all, I believe in my success, I 
believe in it unconditionally* (M,N,0. 871)^ 

(iv) Hitler, addressing the Supreme Commanders 
before the polish campaign, quoted by Lochner: 

^in * 

IB the laat anilyil* thei»e ar* only 
three g^eat statdsnidn iii th^ world, Stalin, 
I, and llu*s6Xifil.*.otir strength oonilats 
in our ap6©d a6d in our -brutality.^ Genghla 
KhaA lad mllliadaa* of woii»^n and dhildreft td 
alatightar flth premeditation and a hajjipy 
heart, metory seea In feim solely *5^w^4ff«,^ 
foufider of a etate. it 'a a matter of irtdlffer- 
eh6e to m i*hirt a weak western Europeafl 
elvlUMitlofl will say ahout aie. I ha^e Issued 
the coflBilind -* and I'll haire afoybody whe^ 
uttera but one word of crltlcl«fi ^bcefislited 
by a firing squad — that our war aim does 
not consist In reaching certain lines, but 
In the»physlcal destruction of th« eneftj* 
Accordingly, I have placed my death-head 
foraiatlons In readlneai...wlth orders to 
theai to send to death' mercilessly and with- 
out cooroasslett, toert, women, and 6hiMrei4 
of Polish derivation and language; 

Hitler sees himself not only as Germany's greatest 

strategist and war lord but as the chosen Instrument 

of Ood, the savior -of the German folk, arid the founder 

6f a new spiritual era which will endure, as Christ's 

kingdom was designed to endure, for a thousand years. 

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that Hitler 

has often identified himself with Christ, 

(v) Hitler: Therefore, 1 believe today 

tljat I am acting In the sensa of the Almighty Creator: 

By warding off the Jews I am fighting for the Lord's 

work* <M.K. 84), 

Hitler: My feeling as a Christian 
points me to my Lord and Savior as a 
fighter. It points me to the man who once 
in loneliness, surrounded by only a few 

- 174 ^ 

folXowers, reoognJLzed those Jews tar jib&t 
they were and s-ummoned men to the fight 
ftgalnat them an<ai who, Ood»s tj?uthl wa» 
greatest not as a stiffs re r but as a 
fighter. In boundless love as a Christian 
and as a man X read through the passage 
which tells us how the X.ord rose at last 
in his might and seized the scourge to drive 
ou^ of ' the^f emple the brood of vipers and 
adders. ••I rectjgnize more profoundly than 
ever before the fact that it was for this 
that He had to shed his blood upon the 
cross* (M,N.O» 26). 

Hitiler: vftien..*! see these men standing 
in their queues . .then I believe I would be 
no Christian, out a very devil, if I felt 
no pity for them, If. I did not, as did our 
Lord two thousand years ago, turn against 
those by whom todajr this poor people is 
plundered and exploited. (M.N.O* 27). 

Hitler may very well have reaXizod that he could 

not make of his. physique anything very imposing or 

resplendent. Perhaps it was an uncanny wisdom on his 

part that paused hiro to adopt, or at least, retain, the 

appearance of a, typical lower middle class man. Anyhow, 

he stands out among others of his type by an adherence 

to the uniform of a commonplsc^ storm trooper or the 

vestments of an average ^jitizan:. He has not yielded 

to the temptation of dressing himself up in a fine 

uniform or In imperial robes as did Napoleon. After 

the war, he went about in jack-boots swinglfflg a 

hippopotamus- hide whip and a plastic surgeon has 

removed superfluous fat from his nose, and he has 

- 175 - ' 

stxMlied as ooBaclo^aly aa any actoir the walk, the 
geaturaa^ and the manner 8\tL table to hia pdaitloh; ^ 
but atill^ deapite th«tae and many othet efforta to 
create a aatlafyJ^ng viaual impresalon, he h^a pre^ 
aerved Certain modeatlea that have Ingratiated him with 
certain olaaaea In Germany. Adoordlng to the legend, 
he la a humble aacetlo man, and thla holda, deaplte 
the known fact that In hla atudy at tl« Berghof a hQge 
portrait of hlmaelf aa Fuehrer hangs over him eternally, 

8, Reed for Aggresalon. Sadism . 

The Marqula de Sade maintained that his cruelties 
were not Inflicted with the purpose of giving others 
pain but rather to Increase to the utmost his own 
sense of power; thus, according to. hla version, aggres- 
sion waa aubaldlary to dominance. In Hitler's case, 
however, although the will to power Is the central 
principle, fxtoed with It la a, vlndlctlveness which 
takea pleaaure In the painful htmilllatlon of hla 
adversarlea. Bnough llltistratlons of the aadlam mixed 
up with Hitler » a need for dominance have already been 
given; we on^y need to point out here what Is known 
the world over, namely, that his Ideplogy of power 
has been expressed In definite aetlona of aggression. 

: D 

- 176 - 

particularly against weaker, helpless individtials 

and groups. Statements such as the followiiig have been 

the precursors of unprecedented hrutalitys 

(i) Hitlei», quoted by Rauschnigg: I shall 
spread terror by the surprise employment of all my 

(ii) Hitler^ quoted by Helden: There- will be no 
peace in the land until a body is hanging from every 
lamp post. 

(iii) Hitler, quoted by Rauschning: But even if 
we could not conquer them, we should drag half the 
world into destruction with us, and leave no one to 
triumph over Germany. There will not be another 1918, 
We shall not surrender. 

An account of Hitler's personal aggressiveness 
against another man is given by Heiden: 

(iv) (At the M\anich Putsch) The first to be 
arrested was the Standard leader. Count Spretl. The 
young Count was set in front of Hitler; he made a 
movement toward his pockety as though to grasp his pis- 
tol. Thereupon Hitler raised his whip^ struck Count 
Spreti on the head with the stout iropbound end, and 
threshed him on the face in blind fury tmtil Count 
Spreti collapsed r^ 

i J> 


- i77 - 

The pvirge of 1934^ the anti-Semitic atrocities, 
the unspeakable crimes committed in Poland, these and 
many other actions executed or o>rdered by Hitler demonstrate 
the extent of his sadism and revengefulness* 

9. Need for Insociation (Collective Identification) . 

Hitler's psychology cannot be \anderstood if he is 
considered apart from his identification with the German 
people, or rather with his ideal for Germany • Prom the 
very beginning, we have evidence of his desire to become 
a member of the Reich, which, to be sure, was more in 
the nature of a fantasled insociation with a vaguely 
conceived tradition than it was a desire for relation- 
ship with concrete individuals* Until he enlisted in 
the German Army, there are no definitive instances of 
his ever belonging to an organized group, -unless it 
was -a little Nationalist's Club in school. No doubt 
this long period of egocentric isolation increased his 
need, for insociation* We note that at school he showed 
tendencies to be an agitator; and Hanish tells us that 
in Vienna be was continually talk ii)^ up the idea of 
forming ati association among his flophouse friends for 
financial or political purposes* Although iri a sense 
he was a lone wolf (he went by the name of Wolf), it 
was also true that he had to have followers about him* 

- 178 - 

One of th.e first things he created was a bodyguard 
and the creation of the National Socialist Party was 
essential to his achievement* Hitler is inconceivable 
without the masses, but it was not so much the concrete 
individual party members whom, we have in mind here, 
rather Hitler's conception of the German Volk, with whom 
in his imagination he was identifiedt He believed, 
and the people believed, that he loved Germany, and ; 
if Germany is perceived in his terms there is no reason 
to doubt this dedication, v/ithout this, he would have 
become a criminal or live 4 out his life as a futile and 
penniless paiftter of postcards, it was this feeling 
of oneness with Germany and the fact that^ he could 
identify his revengefulhess with the heed for aggression 
latent fn the German nation which ehabled him to hold 
his grouhdv this side Insanity » Once the Party had 
conquered the German people, he could function corporo- 
centrlcally rather than egocentrically. It v:as this 
that saved him and won him adherents. 

10. Need fo r Creation (Social ) 

It was hot Germany as it was or had^ b^en that 
Hitler represented but rather the ideal social pattern 
which h§ wished to impose on the country. Not only 

- 179 - 

during his days of rumination. in Vienna but later 

it was necessary for hiin to construct an ideology 

from diverse sources in terms of which he -coiild 

preach to the people • Nonis of the elements were 

original with him hut some inventiveness was required 

in developing the precise combination of principles 

that became the cre^d of the Nazi Party. Besides this, 

he wag continually preoccupied with inventing means 

to his goaltf, which involved a considerable aihoiint 

of creative thought; thus, to a certain extent, he 

functioned as a creative artist and certainly con-- 

ceived of tdLmself as such. 

(i): IBLtler: Or mus'fe' not tiie task of 
the leading statesman be seen in the birth 
of a crdiitive idea or plan in itself, rather 
than in the ability to make the ingenuity of 
his plans understandable to a flock of sheep 
and empty-heads for the purpose of begging their 
gracious consent? (M.K. 101-102). 

11. ^eed for Exposition . 
Having Arrived at his major policy, his ideological 
goal with its subsidiary aims, it was necessary to 
communicate these to thiei people, and so to create a 
Party and later a nation dedicated to the achievement 
of the determined goal. * Hewi the need for exposition 
took the form of writing MEIN' KAMPP, but more especially 
the forpi of speeck- makings Hitler is eloquent in 

- 180 - 

stressing the importance of the orator as opposed 
to the writer when it conies to immediate potency in 
instigating action. We must certainly rate the need 
for exposition as maximally strong in Hitler's per- 
sonality. In boyhood he was already haranguing his 
schoolmates and his family. Likewise in Vienna and 
at Company Headquarters dtiring the war, and everlasting- 
ly from then on he has continued to make speeches to 
real or imaginary audiences. His chief function, per- 
haps, as he conceived it, was to convert the German 
people to his way of thinking -and thus to create the 
Germany that he was devoted to in his imagination. 
■One final point: insociation, creation, and 
exposition were fused by Hitler's conception of himself 
as mouthpiece of the whole people. He was not creating 
an individualistic philosophy and imposing it on 
Germany, but rather, as he saw it, giving voice to the 
deepest heeds and longings of the masses. Here the 
editors' of MEIN KAMPP have, something to say: 

. (i) The leader* is he who most strongly 
senses the needs and desires of the unified 
nation, and not he who — as Nietzsche and Stefan 
George believed -- makes use of the "slaves" in 
order to assure the triumph and happiness of a 
more regal aristocracy than the world has known, 
in short, fcr all his elements of patriotic 
mysticism. Hitler is no Platonist, bu^ a Spartan 
in the simplest sense. That iS why Germans have 
found it so difficult to resist him. As one of 
them has put it, "He flatters us all into acquies- 
cence. -" (M.K*Nbt$, 127*8)* ' 

- 181 - 

In so far, as Hitler conforms to this rale, he is 
egocentric, corporocentriCj, and ideocentric all at once. 

12 • Orienting 'l?heina 

Much evidence could be brought to bear to demonstrate 
that Hitler's energies would never have been fully- 
involved if it had not been for Germany's, defeat and 
collapse, tip to that time, he had political convictions, 
to be sure, but the sufficient stimulus was lacking* 
The critical point came, as was mentioned above, when 
he lay blind in the military hospital ar>d made his vow 
to reinstate hij^ fallen motherland. Therefore, we 
would be inclined to put Hitliar's orienting thema, 
the plot of his active striving, in these words: . 
The treacherous, overpowering, and contaminating, th^ 
weafcehifig and depreciation, df a pure and nob l e object 
is ' the tragic ' spectacle which arouses ' th6 hero ' and 
ificites him' t6 agitate revenge. As L ^ad^r and Me ssJah ^ 
tie cempels the, objebt, by sheei* wilj and eloqviehce , 
to adopt a cbursS of ruthless dggressjoh, the goal 
feeinp^ to annihilate the contamlhator and aggressor^ 
and- so, guided by its almighty ruler ' and . redeemer , 
to become ' supremely pure, powerful, and superior, and 
thug everlastingly respected . His work done, the 

- 182 - , 

hefcb. f e linq-ul 3 he s powe r and di e s , re ve red a 3 the 
pi'ogenltor of an un corrupted and masterful race that 
Dtfill live on tin fulfllAent of his word. 

(N.Bi^ (the elements of purity and contamination 
will be fully discussed later.) 

13 • Lack of Need Affiliation^ Need Nurturance . 

Hitler's strong drives for aggressive dominance 
and self-assertion have been described. These are 
the features of the man's personality which have 
attracted and shocked the world but what is more dis- 
tinctive perhaps is not the presence of these all-too- 
human tendencies but the lack of opposing drives which 
in normal people balance and mitigate the evil effects 
of rampant egocentrism* Hitler has sh6wn extraordinarily 
little ability to establish and maintain friendships, 
to adjust himself to the needs and wishes of other 
people and a minimum of sympathy for hviman suffering 
and affliction. Whatever tendertcies of this sort he 
once possessed have been long-since trampled \inder 



Hitler is a peculial'ly single-minded fanatic and 
the '^gi^eater part of his energies haVe been caught up 
In the major configuration outlined in the previous 
section. Anyhow, other cdnflgurationis and .patterhB 
of behavior are of relatively little consequence in 
a: Nummary analysis of this sort. Suffice it to 

1. Need for Sex. 

■ ■■ » ■' »» I 111* II ■ 

Although the Press has led the German people to 
believe periodically that Hitler had found, the girl 
he was looking for all these yeai?6, a good many close 
observers have come to the conclusion that he is asexual. 
It ii3 generally said that Germany i3 his beloved, his 
mother an^ his wife, and that when he addresses the 
masses, whom hk. thinks of as feminine, he is courting, 
appealing to, complaining to, and arousing the woman 
of his heart. That this is not entirely satisfying 
to his sex instinct will be indicated in a later 
section i /^ 

2* Need for Creation (Architectvire) # 
mt-ler's ambitions to become an architect were 
frustrated by his lack of education and talent, but 

- 184 - 

since he has "become supreme ruler of Germany he has 

given free play to this interest. He has had a part 

in planning and designing a number of the recent 

buildings, system of roads, etc. This tendency is only 

of significance to us in so far as we can infer from 

the products of his mind certain underlying forces; 

f therefore, we will postpone consideration of this 

side of his character rintil a later section. 

it should be noted here that Hitler *s interest 

in architecture is very real* It forms an essential 

ingredient in his. system of sentiments. The evidence^ 

for this is not limited to his own statements but is 

furnished by a close study of his metaphors. He speaks 

of architecture as the queen of the arts. No doubt 

painting and architecture were connected to some 

extent with a certain voyeurism, but they also had 

other significances. The following passage is 

S'^ggQ stive of voyeurism: 

(i) I had eyes for nothing but the 
buildings. ..all day long, from early morn 
. -until late at- night, I tan from one sight to 
the next, for what attracted me mcftt of all 
were the buildings* For hour a "on end I would 
stand in front of the opera or a^dmire the 
'parliament Buildings; the entire Ringstrasse 
affected me like a fairy tale out of the 
Arabian Nights ., (M.K. 26-27). 

- 185 - 

In accordance with the conventions of symbolic 
interpretation, it is possible to conceive of these 
impressive buildings as psychic equivalents of the 
mother whom he has lost. We are also reminded here 
of the unique claustrim which Hitler had constructed 
for himself on the top' of the mountain behind his 
retreat kt Berchtesgadent 


.The drives, sentiments, and traits so far listed 
and discussed -- ,Hitler*s high idealego, his pride, 
his dominance and aggression, and his more or less 
successful repression of the superego -- Indicate 
that his personality structure corresponds to that of 
pounteractive Nardisni, The implication of this term 
is that the manifest traits and symptoms of Hitler^ s 
personality represent a reaction formation to \inder- 
lying feelings of wounded self-.esteem* When one 
examines syi^tematically the common manifestations of 
Co\interactive Narcisra, one finds that ^fxe majority 
of them are clearly exhibited in Hitler* 3 behavior; 
therefore, by running over- the list of these common 
ch?tracteristics we can bring together some loose ends 
and subsume them all under one formulation^ Here we 

- 186 - 

shall not attempt to bo exhauativo but satisfy ourselves 
with some of the more typical manifestations • 

1. Naroigensitivity; ^ low tolerance of belittle- 

ment, depreciation, criticism, contradiction, mockery, 

failure; inability to take a joke; tendency to harbor 

grudges, not forgetting and forgiving. 

(i) Hanisch: Hitler could never stand 
any criticism of his paintings* 

(ii) Hanisch: Hitler could not stand to 
be contradicted. He would get furious. He 
couldn^'t restrain himself, would scream and 
fidget with his hands. 

(iii) Rauschning: He looked round appre- 
hensively and suspiciously, with searching glances 
at us* I had the impression that he wanted to 
see if anyone was laughing* . 

2. n Recognition (Self-^ Exhibition ) ;- self-display; 

extravagant demands for attention and applause; vainglory. 

(i) Hitler ^s appearance at meetings and 
rallies are dramatized to the fullest extent. 
He is c^r^ful to have electric lights shining 
^ on him in such a way as to produce the most 
striking effects possible, etc., etc. However, 
one gets the impression the exhibitionism is 
limited to talking before a crowd — at which 
times it is extreme --but that ordinarily he is 
self-conscious and ill at ease, and does not 
|)articularly enjoy showing himself in public, 
although he must do this to maintain' his power* 

3. n Autonomy (Freedom) ;- self-will; to insist 

on a sufficient area of liberty, on free thought, speech 
and action* Resistance or defiance in the f^c^ of force- 
ful coersions or restraints; to combat tyranny. 

- 187 - 

(1) It is said that Hitler was unruly as 
:. aiyouth, intolerant of frustration. After his 
father's death he was given his own way and 
after leaving. school became increasingly resistant 
to rules and regulations. He was never able 
to hold a job. He wanted to be an artist and 
live like a Bohemian. « We must therefore place 
him high on this variable although in him it 
does not take its usual form (defenisive individual- 
ism), due to his political ambitions — Hitler 
needed the alliance of the masses.. 

(ii) Hitler: The thought of being a 
slave in an office made me ill; not to be 
master of my own time, but to force ah entire 
life-time into the filling in of forms. 
(M.K. 12). 

(iii) Heiden: Peder...also said that 
the Ptehrar must be educated in systematic work. 
For this purpose he had selected an officer, 
who was to serve Hitler as secretary, to map 
out' the day's work according to the clock and, 
in general, to introduce order and a programme 
into the Ptbhrer's activity.- When Hitler heard 
this, he banged his fist on the table and 
shouted, "Who do those fellows think they are? 
I shall go my own way, as I see fit." But he 
■^ " accepted the secretary. 

4. n Dominance (Self -^Sufficiency) : - When one is in 

a position of authority, to plan and make decisions 

v/ithout consulting others; to refuse to change an 

announced decision; to resent disaigreements and 

interferences; annoyed by opposition; to insist 

on being sole ruler of on^'s province — home, business, 

political party, nation. 

(i) ' Heiden, quoting Hitler: I am not 
contending for the favor of the masses.. .I 
alone lead the movement, and no one can itapose 

- 188 - 

conditions on me so long as I personally 
bear the responsibility. And I once more 
bear the whole responsibility for everything 
that occurs in the movement* 

5* Refusal of Subordinate Position :- to avoid, 

refuse, or leave a position which does not do Justice 

to one*s felt powers or accomplishments; to want the 

first place or nothing (fusion with n Autonomy)* 

(i^ Hitler's refusal to accept membership 
in the Cabinet in 1932* He insisted on complete 

5* Reluctance to Admit Indebtedness ;■* to be 

disinclined to express gratitude or acknov/ledge help 

received, to deny or minimize the contribution of 


(i) Rauschning: Hitler has always been 
a poseur . He reinembers things he has heard 
and has a faculty of repeating them in such a 
way that the listener Is led to believe that 
they are his own. 

7# Oouhteractive Achievement :- persistent 

efforts in the face of unexpected obstacles; or 

restriving after a defeat; or repeated and enduring 

attempts to overcome fears, anxieties, deficiencies 

or defects; efforts to defeat a. once successful rival, 

(i) Heiden: When others after a defeat 
would have gone home despondently, consoling 
themselves with the philosophic reflection that 
it was no use contending against adverse circum- 
stances. Hitler delivered a second pnd a third 
assault with sullen defiance. V/hen others 

- 189 - 

after a success would have become more cautious, 
because they would not dare put fortune to the 
proof too often and perhaps exhaust It, Hitler 
persisted and staked a bigger claim on destiny 
with every throw. 

(ii) The very first condition for s\lch a 
manner, of fight with the weapons of pure force 
is, and will always be, perseverance* • .As soon 
as intermittent force alternates with indulgence, 
the doctrine to be suppressed will not only 
recover again and again, but it will be able 
to draw new values from every persecution* • • 
Only in the eternally regular use of force lies 
the preliminary condition to success* (M*K* 222)# 

8. n Rejection (Verbal Depreciation) ;-^ to 

belittle the worth of others, especially if they be 

superiors, rivals, and potentifetl critics (fusion of 

verbal Rejection and. Aggression) # 

(i) Rauschning: Hitler distrusts everyone 
who tries to explain political economy to him. 
He believes that the intention is to dupe him, 
•and he makes no secret of his contempt for this 
branch of science. 

(ii) Hitler: My mind was tormented by 
the question: Are these still human beings, 
worthy of being part of a great nation? A 
torturing question it was...(M.K. 54) > 

(ill) Hitler: ••♦it brought me internal 
happiness to realize definitely that the Jew 
was no German. (M.K. 77)." 

(Iv) Hitler: jt.#*armed in one's mind 
with confidence in the. dear Lord anc^ the unshake- 
able stupidity of the bourgeois. (M,E. 585). 

- 190 ^ 

9, Counteractive Aggression >^ to repay an 
insult in double measure -- a tooth for a tooth; 
to revenge an injury; to attack opponents, superiors, 
and frustrators. 

(I) Verbal : to accuse, condemn, curse, 
damh, depreciate, or mock an enemy to his face, or 
behind his back by criticism, slander, subtle under- 
mining of prestige, smear campaigns, etc. 

There are h-undreds of illustrations 
of this* It is Hitler's conviction that: 
"One can only succeed in winning the soul 
of a people if ^ apart from a positive 
fighting of one's own for one's ov/n aims, 
one also destroys at the same time the 
supporter of the contrary." (M.K. 468) • 

(II) Physical ; to attack or kill the 
depreciating, injuring or frustrating object. 

Purge of 1934, Anti-Semitism, V^/ars, etc* 
10^ Intradeference (Compliance ) : - obadlance 
to own intuitions and impulses; self- trust; fidelity 
to own feelings, -sentiments,, tastes, judgments, ex- 

(I) Hitler: But I knew just the same 
that my place would be there where my inner 
voice directed me to go. 

(II) Hitler: Nothing will move me to 
go another' way but the way which experience, 
insight, and foresight tell me tj^ go. (M.N.O* 374) 

(N.B., Illustratioiia of this are plentiful; 
see Id. ) 

- 191 - 

lit Creation and Cathectlon of an Idealego ;- 

satisfaction with one's ideal, with the height of 

one's aspirations; identification with this ideal. 

(i) Many illustrations have been given 
under Idealego and Identification with Idealego. 

12. idealego IntreLdefei?ence (Respec t) ^ self- 

esteen; satisfaction with conduct, abilities and 

accomplishments of self. 

(i) Although, as I shall attempt to prove. 
Hitler's character structure is a reaction 
..formation to tendencies of which he is highly 
contemptuous, both these tendencies and the 
contempt. are largely unconscious to him. Much 
more conspicuous in his conscious psychology 
are his superiority feelings, his self-esteem, 
his outf lying self-confidence. 

(ii) Hitler (at the age of nineteen years) : 
I waited with pride and confidence to learn 
the result of my entrance examination • I was 
so convinced of my success that the announcement 
of my failure came like a bolt from the blue. 
(M.K. 27). 

'. (iii) Hitler: I devoted myself en- 
thusiastically to my passion for architectvire. • . 
I was able to read or draw late into the night. 
I was never tired. Thus my belief that my 
beautiful- dream of the future would become 
reality, perhaps only after many years, was 
strengthened.. I was firmly convinced .that 
some day I would make a name as an architect. 
(M.K. 45). ./ 

(iv); (tlitler believed himsQ^f a man of 
destiny even while serving as a ci^rporal): In 
those months^ for the first time^ I felt fully 
the whims of fortune which kept me at the front 
in a place where any lucky move on the part 
of a negro could shoot me down, while somewhere 
else I would have been able to render a different 

- 192 - 

service to my cotintry. For I was ^old 
enough to believe even then that I wouia 
have succeeded in this. (M.K, 244)* 

(v) Hitler addressing Schuschnigg, 
quoted by Puchs : Do you not realize that 
you are in the presence of the greatest 
German ever known to history! 

13. n Defendance: to defend'dne's self-esteem 

verbally — by offering excuses and justifications, 

by blaming Qther^, by depreciating the judges, by 

exalting other aspects of one's personality, etc. 

Hitler's prime method of defending, the 

status of. his sdlf ia'by blaming others (extrapuni- 

tive reaction). Two other common methods are these: 

(i) Connecting se-lf with other 
' (respectable or great) people, who have 
done the same, or had the same l^^ppen 
to them, or suffered from the same defect . 
(n Rec). 

Hitler: . If we committed high 
treason, then countless others did the 
same. I deny all guilt so long as I do 
not find added to our little company those 
gentlemen who helped... (M3.0. auj. 

(ii) Proclaiming worth of criticized 
part of self,, or another pa?t, or of self 
as' a whole (A Rec) : to assert the merit of 
what others condemn; to balance a Refect 

with an asset; to wipe o^^v^i^fl^i^^J^n 
recalling one's successes in this -^r in 

some other, field. 

Hitler:- I believe that as a 
Nationalist Socialist I appear in the eyes 
of manv bourgeois democrats as only a wild 
SL! Lt :l^ .»1W man I still .{j-^'^^S^: . 
self to be a better European, .. (M.N. 0. 4U4;. 

- 193 ^ 

Throughout the whole of Hitler's spoken and 

written words are to be found many evidences that 

he highly approves of the traits attributed to him 

in this section and, more than that, advocates their 

"adoption as the preferred pattern of behavior- for 

the whole nation. 

Hitler: •••if a people is to become 
free it needs pride and will-power, defiance, 
hate, hate and once again hate, (M.N.O. 49)» 

14, Insult as stimulus ;*^: It is characteristic 

of the proud counteractive type of personality that 

his energies are not engaged unless he has been 

insulted or injured or imagined himself belittled in 

some way. Thus the man of this sort will often 

actively seek such a stimulus. The following 

quotation illustrates this important principle: 

(i) Hitler: • If we had been attacked 
at that time, nay, if one had only laughed at 
us, we would, have been happy in both evenbs. 
For the depressing thing was neither the 
one nor the other, but, It was only the complete 
lack of attention we encountered at that time. 
This was true mogt of all for my person* 
(15, K, 490), . . ' 

15* Compulsive Crimix>allty :- Having started 

on a courge of revengeful aggression instigated by 

a real or supposed -Insult the individual is often 

led to act or to plan actions which are opposed by 

- 194 - 

his conscience. Therefore he is compelled, if he 
is to fulfill his resolution of revenge, to repress 
his superego*. This often results in a condition of 
mounting lanconscipus guilt which must be further 
subdued by a repetition or extension of the criminal 
behavior in order, as it were, to prove, by the 
success attending this conduct, that it is favored 
by fortune and hence right. This is demonstrated 
in Hitler's case and is an important dynamical 
principle of his, personality. . It is necessary for , 
him to commit crimes, more crimes, in order to appease 
his superego. As soon as successful offensive action 
becomes impossible, the man will become a victim of 
a long-repressed superego, a condition which will 
lead to suicide or. mental breiakdown. 

- 195 - 



• Almost all psychologists who have analyzed 
Hitler's personality have interpreted it by referring, 
among other concepts, to Adler's formula: craving, 
for superiority coming out of unhearable feelings of 
. inferiority . We also agree to this conception with 
. special stress laid upon the press of Insult (wounded 
narcism) and the consequent residual tension of 
revenge bolted up for years and then finding expression 
in the Cult of Brutality. Even some of his non- 
psychological associates Reached essentially the 

■ same conclusion. 

(lO Rauschning: Every conversation, 
however unimportant, seemed to show that this man 
was filled with an immeasurable hatred. Hatred of 
: what? It was not easy to say. Almost anything 
might suddenly inflame his wrath and his hatred. 
He seemed always to feel the need of something to 

hate . 

(ii) RauchniRg: In the harshn;)ss and 

unexampled cynicism of Hitler there is something 

more than the repressed effect of a hypersensitiveness. 

- 195 - 

which has hsndicapped its bearer. It is the urge 

to reprisal and vengeance, a truly Russian-nihilistic 


(iii) Rausohning: Hatred — personal 
hatred — rang out in his words, revenge for early 
ye^rs of , poverty, for disappointed hopes, for a life 
of deprivation and humiliation. 

(iv) Heiden: Anyone acquainted with the 
unhappy life of this lonely man knows why hatred 
and perse cutibn mania guided his first political 
footsteps. In his heart he nursed a grudge against 
the' world, and he vent«d it on guilty and innocent 
alike. His cracking voice, his jerky gait, his, 
sawing gestures expressed a hatred of which all who 
saw him were conscious. 

Hitler has experienced almost all the varieties 
of press that in our experience are capable of giving 
rise to wounded narcism; chiefly the following 
deserve mention: 

!• Pl:tyaical inferiority :- Hitler *s youthful 
frailty and general bodily awkwardness and weakness 
has already been described. 

2. Press of aggressive dominance^Jlnsult) ;- Know- 
ing something of the character of Alois Hitler, we can 
safely infer experiences of abasement and hvmlliation 
suffered by the son* 

-.197 - 

3* Press of rejection:- S6me evidence for this 
has already been given, (Sec. IV), and more will follow* 

4. Press' of lack (poverty and low social status );- 
Here we would point especially to the four years of 
living among the derelicts of Vienna. 

5. Press of failure ;- The failure to graduate 
from the Realsohulej the failure to pass the examina- 
tions of- the Academy of Arts; and the failure to make 
his living in Vienna -- these and many others were 
summated to produce feelings of humiliation and in- 

6. ' Press of subordinate office, ' success of 
rivals ;" ■ The fact that Hitler was not promoted in 
the Army beyond the position of corporal and that he 
must have seen many younger men being advanced above 
him helped to aggravate his wounded pride. 

7. Sexual inferiority :- Perhaps crucial in this, 
whole cluster of debasing press is Hitler's reported 
inability to have sexual intercourse ♦ This may be 
due to physical or psychic impotence. 

8. Breakdown of courage :- Hitler's war neurosis 
is a sign of a breakdown of nervous stamina ^n the 

face of overwhelming odds, which was probably experienced 
by him as a humiliation, especially in view of his ego 

. 198 - 

(a) .; Our own hypothetical reconstruction 
of the traumatic events which led to the feeling of 
insulted pride would be somewhat as follows: 

(i) Abasement and humiliation of the mother 
as the result of the press of a^ggressive dominance 
and insult from the father, leading eventually to 
the death of the mother. According to our hypothesis 
the boy Hitler identified with his mother on the 
lowest level of his nature • This led to the desire 
for revenge: aggressive dominance and humiliation 
of the father. 

(ii) Press of rejection coming from the 
father and perhaps to some extent from the mother 
(birth of younger sibling)* This led to the boy'g 
desire for supraflliation, incorporation in a larger 
and more p owe rful^ group, namely, Germany, and a feeling 
of superiority (glory) in this fantasied alliance, 
together with the justification of releasing aggression 
against his Government, Austria. 

(iii) Abasement apd himiiliatiop on self as 
a result of the press aggressive dominance and insult 
from his father. This is similar to th§ travima in 
(i) except here it is on his own account entirely. 

- 199 -• 

It led to the same counteractive need for aggressive 
dominance and vengeance, the goal being hiomlliation 
of the father and omnipotence for himself • The death 
of his father when he was thirteen years old and the 

, five subsequent years when he had his mother pretty 
much to himself may. have served to engender the 
confidence (enjoyed throughout his life) that he 

. v;ould eventually suQceed as ruler, 

/ (iv) Humiliation of self in Vienna as 
the result bf press rejection,- press deprivation, 
and press aggressive dominance. Since many of the 
prominent positions in Vienna were held by Jews, 
some of Hitler's anti-Semitism, aa well as his hatred 
. of Vienna, can be attributed to humiliations received 
from the upper classes during these years* These 
wounds to pride helped to augment the mounting 
residual tension of aggressive dominance.. Later 
his acceptance as a soldier in the German Army 
served to relieve his painful feelings and give him 
feelings of exultation similar to those experienced 
when he joined the Nationalist's Club as ^ boy* 

(v) Hixmiliation of self (war ^neurosis) 
concomitant with the humiliation and abasement of 
his motherland as the result of press aggressive 

- - 200 - 

dominance and insult (Versailles Treaty) at the 
hands of the Allies, As in the previous four cases, 
this led to the need for aggressive dominance with 
the aim of reinstating the ppwer and glory of Germany 
and wreaking vengeance on the Allies • 

The hypothesis of identification with the mother 
on a physical erotic level calls for the assiomption 
of strain of femininity in Hitler, combined with a 
trend of passive homosexuality and for this we must 
now list the evidence. 

.1. Femininity, Passive fiomosexuality. Masochism . 
(a) The feminine component in Hitler's 
physical constitution had already been described 

(i) Feminine traits. Hitler/s senti- 
mentality, his emotionality, his shrieking at the 
climax of his speeches, his artistic inclinations, 
his sudden collapses, his occasional softness — 
these are all typical not so much of a woman as of 
a woman in man# 

(ii) Identification with mother. Hitler's 
belief that he is going to: die of cancer as did his 
smother is suggestive of an underlying empathic relation- 
ship • . : 

- 201 - 

(ili) .Abasement to superiors, strong 
males. Instances of exaggerated submisslveness to 
powerful superiors have already. been listed. 

(iv) Cathexis of male symbols. Hitler 
has a special liking for a multiplicity of tall, 
conspicuous columns in architecture and for paintings 
of stallions (they must never be mares). 

(v) Attraction to homosexuals followed 
by their murder. It is known that Hi t lis r had a special, 
admiration for Roehm; whether it was this individual 
or Hitler himself who was chiefly responsible i n ^ 
attracting such a large proportion of homosexuals to 
the Nazi Party is uncertain, but it is known that 
after two or three months of anxiety and delusions 
to the effect that. Roehm and his fellow homosexuals 
were plotting' to usvirp power Hitler had them all 
njurdered in the purge of 1934. 

(vi) Homosexual panic. Some of the 
nightmares described by several informants are very 

suggestive of homosexual panic* 


Rauschning: Hitler wakes at 
night with convulsive shrieks. ■. He shouts for 
help.' He sits on the edge of his bed, as if un- 
able to stir^ He shakes with fear, makipg the 
whple bed vibrate. He shou,ts confused, totally 
unintelligible phrases. - Hq ,gasps> as if 
imagining himself to be suffocating^. .Hitler 

- 202 - 

stood swaying In his room, looking wildly about 
him. "Hel He I He^s been herel" he gasped,. 
His lips wq re blue. Sweat streamed down his 
face. Suddenly he began to reel off figures, 
and odd words end broken phrases, entirely 
devoid of sense •••then he suddenly broke out, 
"There, therql In tho corner l Who^s that?" 
He stamped and shrieked in the familar way**. 

A number of metaphors used by Hitler, images 

of being stabbed in the rear, recur in his writings* 

(vii) Hitler:/ The development has shown 
that the people who stab with stilettos in 
Germany are more powerful than before. 

(viii) Hitler: Slowly the fear of the 
Marxist weapon of Jewry sinks Into the brains 
and souls of decent people like a nightmare. 
(M.K. 447). 

(ix) Hitler: One bejgins to tremble 
before the terrible enemy, and thus one has 
become his final victim. (M.K# 447). 

(x> Hitler: There can navey be tmity 
between- those who manned the walls in the hour 
of danger, and those who in the last moment 
pushed the stilelbto into their backs. 

(xi) Hitler: God be thanked, this is 
just the meaning of Germanic democracy, that no 
unworthy climber or moral shirker can come in 
the back way to rule his fellow citizens* . .but 
should, nevertheless, such a fellow try to sneak 
in, then he will be easily found out and ruth- 
lessly rebuffed. Out with you, cowardly wretch! 
Step bapk, you ar^ soiling the steps; the front 
stairs leading to the Pantheon of History is 
not for sneaks but for heroes. (M.lK. 117). 

Pertinent at this poipt, perhaps, is' Hitler's 

fear of being poisoned by some deathly; powder sprinkled 

on his bedclothes; as was shown on his visit to Rome 

- 203 - 

and at other times, his bod must be made up by a 
woman in a particular way, never by a man» 

(b) Need for abasement; - Hitler's exaggerated 
submissiveness has been desoribed (B^ 1 (ii)), but a 
few more notable quotations should be added to transmit 
the passion that sometimes accompanies this' tendency 
in Hitler. They are all ^strongly, suggestive of 

masochism ^ 

(i) Hitler, quoted by Rauschning: The 
plain man in the street respects, nothing but 
brutal strength and ruthlessness -- women, 
too, for that matter, women and children. 
They need wholesome fear. .They want to fear 
something* They want someone to frighten them 
and make them shudderingly submissive • 

(ii) Hitler, quoted by Rauschning: I 
have seen the vision of the new man -- fearless 
and formidable,: I shrank from him. 

(iii) Hitler: I^ike a woman, whose psychic 
feeling is influenced less by abstract reasoning 
than by an uhdefinabie, sentimental longing for 
complementary strength, who will, submit to the 
strong man rather than dominate the weakling, 
thus the masses love the ruler rather than the 
suppliant. (M.K» 55) i 

(N.B^i. Another excellent example of 
projection of self). 

(iv). Hitlerr He who would win the great 
masses mustv know the key which ppens the door 
to their hearts* Its name is not objectivity, 
that is^' weakness, but will powey and strength. 
(M.K. 458). :, , . ~ 

• 204 - 

Hitler has a peculiar habit of falling to the 
ground suddenly when faced by a critical situation or 
insurmountable frustration* Ho does not struggle 
persistently until he is completely overpowered but 
he makes an enormous show of strength and, when he 
sees the odds are against him, .\inexpectedly collapses. 

Together with these critical abasements, we 

might include thq inti'aggressivo tendencies: his 

preoccupation with suicide and death, 

(c) Cathexis for Hitler Youth , 

(i) Hitler, quoted by Rauschning: But 
my magnificent V youngsters! Are there finer 
ones any^'here in the world? Look at these 
young men and boys J What materia 11 With 
- them I can make a new world 

(ii ) Hitler :' • . .how did the eyes of 
my boys (Hitler youth) shine when I made clear 
to them the necessity of their mission. (M.K. 729). 

(ili) Hitler: ..•vanity in a beautiful, 
well shaped body (to be encouraged by men 
wearing less concegiling clothes). 

It is reported by Rauschning that Hitler has 

had overt homosej^ual relationa and in this connection 

has mentioned three lovers; one, Porstor (Gauleiter 

of Danzig) . 

II. Repression of Femininity, 'Counteraction 
by Identification with Powerful Male Idea l ego 

The ruthlesg aggressiveness of Hitler is the 

trait which first strikes the eyes of the whole world. 

- 205 - 

but It is not tho healthy aggressiveness of a full- 
blooded male animal but a reaction formation to the 
tendencies which we have subsumed -under inferiority, 
femininity, passive homosexuality. Hitler^s aggressive- 
ness i3 the compulsive frantic hate of a neurotic for 
some unreyenged insult of infancy. The varieties 
of expressions of this vindictive will to power have 
already been fully listed. There remains only. to 
be mentioned the many indications that we have of 
an intense and lanrelen ting' self-contempt which has 
causedl him to admire what he is- not, the very opposite 
of hi&self .^ 

III* Need for 'ihtrarejecibioh ' (Self^ Con tempt ) 
Under the heading proj^ectlons^ we enimie rated 
many instances of where Hitler attributed the traits 
of his inferior' and rejected self to external objects. 
Air of these i and there were many of them, ihight be 
cited as evidenaes^ of self- contempt, sihce they^^ 
represent refusals to acknowledge aspects of himself. 
Here we' ha^ve t6 call: attentlpn^ opposite tendency, 
namely that of praising the antithesis of what he is 
or has been in reality. 

- 206^ 

(a) Hitler has talked incessantly of 
superiority of bteed. He has praised the aristocracy 
as the noble result of the process of natural selec- 
tion ^ — the nobility were the superior race'. He, 
in contrast^ was born of; lowly stock, sevefral members 
of his family being mentally retarded, one feeble- 
minded. His mother was\ a simple peasant and dbmestic 
servant, and his father an illegitimate son who begot 
an illegitimate child. 

■ :\ (b) Hitler hag scarcely one Of the attributes 
which. hi's own experts ascribe' to the Nordic race, 
and he cpuld never )3ecome a member of his own elite 
guard; and yet he says i "Strong and handsome must 
my young men be . 1 will have them fully trained in 
all physical exercises. I intend to have an athletic 
youth -»- that is the first and chief thing," Note 
that Hitler has never had the slightest aptitude for 

(c) Hitler is vmmarried and has ho children, 
and yet preaches increase of population, the sanctity 
of the family, and the necessity of bearing more and 
more Germans. 

- 207 - 

(d) Hitler's own life is one of individual- 
istic anarchy - self-willed and disorderly and yet he 
preaches "my new order" and demands pxmctilious 
discipline from his subordinates . 

All these contrasts, and th^re are many more of 
them, are pitiful demonstrations /of Hitler's self- 
loathitig and as such clinch the diagnosis that we 
have outlined here. The nearest to a recorded con- 
fession of his own self-contempt that has ever come: to • 
us is a statement of Hitler's reported by Rauschning. 

(i) I km hegihnilng with the young, 
we older ones ai-e used up, Y^s, .we are old 
alreadv We ar e rotten t n the marrow. . .we 
f^^'ttl:.A rZ ".n^ .entimenUi.- We are bearing 
; ^^ ^!::L» If' » humiliating pas t; ana have on 
our bi^Xthe dull recoiiec L Xou of serfdom .. 
and servility.. But my magnificent youngster^l 

■ etc* '-' .' \ ,-■ .^ ■.-./. 

Ml) . The uninitiated but .pure man 
"^ ' is tempted to abanddn himself in Kling>«.or'3 magic 
gardeS! to the lusts and excesses of corrupt 
llviS^ation, instead of ^joining th. elite of ^ ^ 
kniehts who guard the secret of 411 e,puioux 
;?^^!?r„o .>.! .offering frott the allmen^_^f 
V, LI : corrupted . bi^ : How ^ c Tn^i^i^puriry ^ 
ourselves and make aton ement? ...mount the 
steps. of a new nobility, , 

IV. we q^tlve Cathexis of th e Jewish Race., 
This is as good M place as any to mention Hitler's 
Anti-Semitism and toliat what seer^s to have been, in 
his case, the chief determinants of this sentiment: 

- 208 - 

1. The influence of a number of political, 
thinkers and speakers whom he admired: Lueger, 
Ped^r, Eckartj^ etc. 

2. His repressed hatred and the need to find 
an object on which to vent it: the suitability^ 

of the Jew as a scapegoat because he does not fight 
with fistai and Vreapons* 

3* The suitability of the Jew as an object 
on which to project his own repudiated background 
and traits: his Jewish god-.f a ther-^ and posjsibly^-^ y 
his Jewish grandf a thei^); his physical, timidity and 
sensitiveness,; his; jpol:ymprphou3 sexual impulses • 

4* The recognition thaV the repreased • 
aggression in the German people after the Versailles 
Treaty required a scapegoat^ condemnation of the 
Jew as good political strategy • 

5^ The realization^ after having 'once embarked 
on the road to militarism, that the stirred- up 
aggression of his f ollbwers needed some outlet — 
a warming up period — during the years they had 
to wait before .they were strong enough to declare 
war on a foreign power* Directing. aggression against 
a common enemy would greatly diminish the likelihood 
of its being turned against himself ♦ 

- 209 - 

3* The intensity of his Anti-Semitism is partly 
accoiinted for by one of his principles of political 
action: focus, hostility on a single enemy at a time* 

'?• In building his military machine the anti- 
militaristic Jewish people could not be of much help 
to him; At bottom Fascism Xb the advocacy of the 
aggressive drive over and above the acquisitive drive 
(with which the Jew has . generally been identified) , 
etnd, by the same token, it is the substitution of 
Power and Glory for Peace and Prosperity, a material- 
istic paradise on earth (with which Cpmm-unism and the 
Jew have also been identified)* Finally, the Nazi 
doctrine of fanatical irrationality (thinking with 
the blood) is antipathetic to the intellectual 
relativism of the Jew. Thus there ara several 
fundamental points of opposition (as well 6s certain 
points of kinship) between Nazi ideology and Jewish 


- 210 - 


(Omitted from this edition) 

By careful study of the three thousand me taphcirs 
that .are to be found in MEIN KAMPP it was possible to 
work out. the chief patterns of Hitler's emotional and 
perverse sexual^ complexes. The conclusions reached by 
the uae of this method were later verified in a conversa- 
ti on with a man who has questioned two of the women 
with whom Hitler has 'had relations. There were no 
discrepancies between the conclusions reached here 
and these first hand reports. Although the discovery 
of these sexual patterns is helpful to a psychiatrist 
in arriving at a complete formulation of Hitler's 
character and therefore indirectly pertinent to the 
.final diagnosis and the predictions of his behavior, 
it has no bearing on the political situation. Conse- 
quently, .the sections dealing with this aspect of his 
personality have been omitted. 




- 211^ 


Hitler has a number of unusual abilities of which 
his opponents should not be ignorant* Not only 
is it important to justly appraise the strength of an 
enemy but it is well to know whether or not he possesses 
capacities and techniques which can be appropriated to 
good advantage • Hitler »s chief abilities, realiza- 
tions, and principles, of action as a political figure, 
all of which involve an uncanny knowledge of the 
psychology of the average man, are 'briefly these: 

1. Pull appreciation of the importance of the ^ 

' ' ■■ ■ . I n ^m I I I ■ »■ ■ 1 . - I - ■ . .., I . ■■ I ,1.1 

• . • ,.■";.... , ,. 

masses in the success of any movement ; -' Two quotations - 
might serve to bring out this point. 

(I) Hitler: The lack of knowledge of 
the internal driving forceai of great changes 
led to an insufficient evaluation of the im- 
portance of the great masses of the people; 
from this resulted the scanty interest in the 
social question^ the deficient and insufficient 
courting of the soul of the nation's lower 
classes* ..(M.K. ISS). 

(II) Helden speaks of "Hitler's frequently 
.-noted incapacity to Impose his will in a small 

circle, and his consummate skill in winning over 
a crowd prepared by publicity ajid stage manage- 
ment, and , then, with its aid, vanquishing the 
small circle, too." 

2r Recbghitibn of the inestimabj.e value of winning- 

the support of youth; realization of the Immense momentum 

- 212 - 


given a social movement' by the wild fervor and 
enthusiasm of young men and women* Here we must al3o 
include the importance of early training and indoctrina- 

3. An identification^ through feelinp;> with the 
deepest needs and sentiments of the averap;e German 
and the, ability to give passionate expression to these 

4. Capacity to appeal to the most pfdmitive. 
as well as the most ideal^ inclinations in man\ : to 
arouse the basest instincts an d yet cloak them with 
nobility^ justifying all actions as means to the 
attainment of an ideal goal> Hitler has seen that men 
will not combine arid dedicate themselves to a common 
purpose unless this purpose be an ideal one capable 

of survival beyond their generatioh. He has perceived 
also that although men will die only for an ideal 
their continued zest and enterprise can be maintained 
. only by a succession of more immediate and earthly 
sa tisf actions <!' 

5g Ajppreciatiori of the fact that the masses 
are as- hungry for a sustaining ideology in politJoal 
action as they are for daily bread* It is with the. 
masses that religious belief has taken root, and 
maintained itself and in the last decades the 

- 213 - 

ideologies of communism and fascism have also flourished 

among the common people • It is an error to believe 

as many democratic leaders do that the average man. 

cannot understand and cares nothing for political 

philosophy. Hitler is most specific on this point, 

two quotations from his writings being particularly 

pertinent, - , ■ 

(i) All ft)rce which does not spring from 
a firm spiritual foundation will be hesitating 
and uncertain* It lacks the stability which 
can only rest on a fanatical view of life* 
(M.K. 222). 

,(ii) Every attempt' at fighting a view of 
life by means of force will finally fail, \mless 
the fight against it represents the form of an 
attack for the sake of a hew. spiritual direc- 
tion. Only in the struggle of two views of 
life with each pthei*. ;Can the weapon of brute 
force, used continuously and ruthlessly, bring 
about the decision in favor of the side it 
supports. (M.K. 223). 

8. The ability. to analyze complex social condi- 
tions into a few domi nant human forces j -Hitler is 

. - . - I I ; I . ■ , ■ • - 

Speaking the truth when he says, "I have the gift of 
reducing all problems to their simplest foundations... 
A gift for tracing back all theories to their roots 
in reality." He has the ability, Rauschning tells 
us, "of breaking through the wall ^f prejudices and 
conventional theories, of the experts, and in so doing, 
h9 has frequently discovered amazing truths.". 

- 214 . 

7 . The ability to portray conflicting human 
forces In vlvld^ concrete iinagery that is linderstand- 
able and inoving to the ordinary, man > This cornea 
down to the use of metaphors In th(3 form of Imagery 
which, as Aristotle has said, is the most powerful 
force on earth* Public speakers of recent years 

seem to have overlooked the importance of this principle^ 
relying more on the marshalling of cold,, objective 
facts and figures* 

8. The ability to draw on the traditions of 
the peoples and by reference to the great classical 
mythological themes evoke the, deepest unconscious 
emotions in his audience* The fact that the unconscious 
mind is more intensely affected by the great eternal 
symbols and themes, (that it naturally thinks in 

these terms,) is not generally understood by speakers 
and writers* Undoubtedly in Hitler's case the 
permeability, of his ego to unconscious processes 
has made this form of utterance more natural than 
it would be for others. 

9. Realization th^t enthusiastic ' pblitical 
action does not take placei if the emotions are not 

■ ■ ■ ■i" n « m ii « I I >ii I *! «i ■ Ml. " ' ' . ' "^ ' * ' ' " ^1. II ■■■ II . I, I II ■■ ■■ 

involved * Hitler has always insisted that he was 
bringing about a veritable conversion in the 

- 215. - 

personalities of his adherents rather than a mere 
intellectual agreement with his views. 

10* Realization of the importance of artistry 
and dramatic Intensity in the 6pn'ductaride of large 
iheetlriga, rallies, arid feiatival a. This involves 

I I ii B iiaiiM i Wf a r ill |,iw , 1 111,1,11, I i{ .,, n il M l ii m ii n ii n i ^ ^ 

not only an appreoiation of what the artist --» the 
writer, musician, and painter — can accomplish 
in the way of evoking pbjpular support but also the 
leader's recognition of the necessity of his participa- 
tion in the total .dramatic effect as chief character 
and hero. Thus Hitler has. become master of all the 
arts of high-lighting his own role in the movement 
for a greater Germany. Democratic leaders, on the 
other hand ^ disregarding the fact that, the artist 
is trained aboVd all others to animate the human 
spirit, have disregarded this important aspect dt life, 

11. The ability' to appeal to the sympathetio 
concern and protectiveness of his people, to represent 
himself a*. the bearer of their burdens and their 

» • • • 

future,, with th^ result that many people, particularly 
the womett, feelt^hderly. arid Compassibnateiy about 
him, being always careful to avoid inflicting undue 
annoyance or suffering on their Xea'der. The intense 
loyalty of Hii:ler'a Body Guard is an illustration of 
this protectiVeness. 

- 215 - 

12. Dedication to his mission . This most 
essential of all Hitler's characteristics should 
perhaps have been mentioned first. What is involved 
here is an intense and profound insociation with the 
German people, or at least with his vision of what 
the German people might become. All close observers 
have agreed that Hitler is sincere ih this feeling, 
and whether this is strictly true or not, he has 
succeeded in convincing his people that he is a 
passionate and devoted patriot. It is the spectacle 
of his far-*seeing dedicated vision and firm dedicated 
utterances which arouse the selfless energies of 

his followers. Citizens of democratic countries 
who have been brought up in the tradition of extreme 
individualism cannot readily appreciate^ this sub- 
mission of the leader to a social purpose. They 
are naturally skeptical of Hitler ^s sincerity and 
believe that it is forced and artificial. I submit, 
on the contrary, that it is this insociation, as we 
have stressed abbve, which is responsible for the 
maintenance of Hitler's partial sanity, despite the 
presence of neurotic and psychotic trends. 

13. Self-confidence and sens6 of infaliibiiity. 
This might have been detrimental to Hitler's popularity 

- 217 - 

if his decisions had often met with failure, but in 
as mutfh as his rise to power was almost phenomenal 
and evehtfl proved that he was so often right in his 
predictions, his claim to infallibility was accepted 
and- his word was eventually reverenced as a divine 
pronouncement • 

14 • Fanatical stubbor nness In his adherence 
to a few principles and to one coromon^bial * 

(1) Hitler, quoted by Deuel: Only 
a storm of glowing passion can turn the 
destinies of nations, but this passion can 
only be roused by a man who carries it 
within himself. 

(ii) .,.the forceful impression- of 
great pverwheimlng viewpoints. .» the 
convincing force of \inconditional belief 
in them. (M.K. 570). 

15 . Mastery, of- the art of political. Ofj^aniza - 
tion4 Here vindoubtedly Hitler was assisted by 
several of his shrewder associates, but his own 
judgment in matters of organization was usually 
influential "above that of the others , 

16 . Ability to sxirround himself with devoted 
ai des whose talents c-omplemeht his own . In many 
respects Hitler is deficient, especially in the 
practices of orderly adrainistration,; but he was 
capable of finding sufficient skill .among 'his ad- 
herents and make them work for him regardless of 
their failings in other respects. 

- 218 - 

17 • Mtler Is Tonusual in hi3toj?y in his concep- 
tion of the le ader as a creator of social forms. 

.. ' . " ' ' 1 1 ■■■ .1.1 I 1 1 I . ■ ■■ I.. ■ p 

Holding this view, it^ is natural that he should 
conduct hi a life at certain seasons as an artist 
does, seeking rest and seclusion and waiting for the 
vision or plan to develop in his subconscious. What 
other: politicians refer to as his bohemianism, his 
disorderly and romantic style of life is .very compar- 
able to the pattern which authors have found most 
effective in the production of their works • . Tempera- 
mentally indeed. Hitler is the arch-romantic. One 
might suppose that this way of governing one ^ a life 
has no place in, politics, but without question in 
this instance mahy^ of the startling innovations intro- 
duced by the Nazis are the results of Hi tier* s 
reliance upon the creative imagination directed toward 
social issues. 

18* Most of the world will concede that Hitler 
has tactical genius . The particular feature that 
has impressed most observers has been" his uncannily 
precise timing of decisions- and actions. As Thyssen 
has put it, "Sometime^ his intelligence is astonish^ 
ing.# •miraculous political 'intuition, dexjoid of all 
moral sense, but extraordinarily precise. Even in a 
very complex situation he discerns what is possible, 
and what is nott" 

- 219 . . 

19 • The fact that Hitler ha a repudiated the 
operation of conscience in arriving a^ political 
decialona has eliminated once and for all the force 
which checks and complicates, the forward-going 
thoughts and resolutions of most socially responsible . 
statesmen* • Thus, Hitler Vs course is immensely 
simplified since it is not incumbent upon him to 
respect the dictates of conscience and so reject a 
path of action which appeals to him as being most 
effective. Other statesmen, on the contrary, must 
either renounce certain, programs or pull their punches* 

20 • Hitler has boasted that he learned the use 
of terror from the communists and employed it with 
more effectiveness ' than his instructors* 

21. Mastery of the art of propagandas This has 
consisted in the following of certain rules such as: 
never to admit a fault or wrong; never to accept 

blame ; concentrate on one enemy at a time ; blame that 


enemy for everything that goes wrong; take advantage 
of every opportunity to raise a political whirlwind. 

^ Many of the specific abilities listed above are 
exercized as part and parcel of his quite unusual 

- . 220 - 

power as a popular orator I So much has been written 
about Hitler's ability to galvanize an audience by 
his gestures, the cadence of his sentences, the 
resoluteness of his declarations, the passion of his 
appeals that any further description here would X>e 
superfluous. It is clear that Hitler becomes transported 
during a speech and exhibits' a personality that is kept 
in the background at other times. When face to face 
with his public he becomes a clairvoyant, shaman in 
a trance, as he relinquishes normal controls and 
allows his emotions full sway. 

- 221 - 


I shall assume that from, now on the Allied 
Nations. will be closing in on Germany; that Hitler 
will be confronted by an increasing:.xrumber of military 
setbacks in the field, by the devastation of one' 
industrial center after another, ^nd by the spread ' 
of a defeatist spirit among the civilian population. 
How will be behave? There are various possibilites, 
some of which are more or less desirable, others 
more or 16ss undesirable, from the Allied standpoint. 
It is possible, however, that some .of the liess 
desirable final acts of his career may be prevented. 
The chief possibilities are these: 

1. Hitler ^s behavior will become Increasingly 
neurotic ; - his capacity to make correct decisions, 
to devise effective strategy, to encourage his 
people, will diminish steadily. For eight months 
there have been signs of such a breakdown of psychic 
strength. Hitler has not appeared and spoken in 
public at customary' occasions, or, if Ije has spoken, 
his words have lacked confidence and ^lustaining 
value. Several times there have been rumors that 
he had retired, to Berchtesgaden, the victim of 

- 222 - 

nervous Illness • Whether this is true or not, it can 
be certainly predicted that Hitler will experience 
an increasing number of hysterical seizures in which 
he will pace and stamp the ' floor, shriek with rage, 
and eventually collapse in tears • He will seek the 
solitude of his refuge in the mountains where he will 
be tormented by dreadful nightmares and melancholia, 
and become inert • 

Then^ after a period of recuperation, he will 
arrive at a new plan of aggressive offense. If his 
military Staff are" opposed to it, he will assume 
command himself, and lead his troops on- another 
desperate assault against the Russian lines. If 
unsuccessful, he will have more nervous seizures, 
relinquish command, and again retreat to Berchtes- 
gaden* Hitler has no capacity for sustained defense. 

He will speak less and less in public, because 
he cannot face his people if his star is not ascending. 
He can speak" only when he anticipates progress or 
after a victory. The Russians have shattered Hitler ^s 
confidence; and without confidence h0 is paralyzed. 
If he stbod before his followers now he would probably 

- 223 - 

Without doubt he will become inci^easingly fearful 
of being poisoned, betrayed, or shot* 

VTiatever else happens, the above course of events 
will almost certainly occur • Hitler will becbipe less 
and less of a leader; others will take over. On the 
one hand, the military staff; and, on the other, 
Himmler, Ribbentrop, Goering, Goebbels, Pffrster and 
Koch* There will be dissensions between the Army and 
the Party; as well as bet^itfeen the Party leaders* But 
the people will be kept ignorant as long as possible 
of Hitler^s failing nerves,, and they will not easily 
lose their faith in him. Furthermore, he will always 
reserve and exercise the right- to step in at any 
moment and dictate what shall be done. Thus we can 
expect to. hear nothing of him for a whtlis and then 
suddenly he will appear unheralded at some spot and 
something new will happen/ 

2. Hitler may go insane : - He has the make-up 
of -a paranoid schizophrenic, and the load of frustra- 
tion and failure that is coming to him may crack his 
resistance, causing him to yield his will to the 
turbulent forces of his vincohs-cious. This is not 
•undesirable; because, ev^en if the truth be kept 
hidden from the people^ the greatest source of strength 

- 224 - 

in Germany will be* removed from , the scene of action^ 
and morale will rapidly .deteriorate as rumors spread. 
Furthermore, the Legend of the Hero will be severely 
damaged by such an outcome. There is no good historical 
instance of the deification of a military or political 
leader who was defeated and went insane. Finally, if 
Hitler became insane, he would probably fall into the 
hands of the Allied" Nations, and this, as I shall 
argue, would be the most desirable possible out come • 

3. Hitler may get killed in battle ; * At a 
critical moment Hitler may decide to lead his e'^lite 
troops against the Russians, exposing himself so that 
he will get killed, and so live in the hearts of his 
countrymen as a valiant hero. He is very likely to 
choose this course^ most undesirable from our Allied 
point of view. It is undesirable, first, becausiS 
his death will serve as an example to all his followers 
to fight^ with fanatical death-defying energy to the 
bitter end, and second, because it will insure Hitler's 
immortality -*- the Siegfried who led the Aryan hosts 
against Bolshevism and the Slav* 

4» Hitler may be killed by d Serman : -^ Hitler 
la most efficiently protected and it is not likely 
that anyone will wilfully attempt to kill him. But 
he may contrive to have someone, a half-crazy paranoid 

- 225 - 

like himself. Instigated to do the deed at some 
prearranged moment when he" purposely exposes his • 
person in public. If he could arrange to have a 
Jew kill him, then he could die in the belief that 
his fellow countrymen would rise in their wrath and 
massacre every remaining Jew in Germany. Thus, he 
would get his ultimate revenge* This would be the 
most dastardly plan of alt, and the very most undesir^ • 
able. It would increase the fanaticism of the soldiers, 
and create a Legend in conformity with the ancient 
pattern, Siegfried stabbed in the back by Hagan, 
Cftesar by Brutus, Christ betrayed by Judas -- except 
that here the murderer would not be a close follower. 
However, it is just possible that Hitler could persuade 
the beloved pBrster to kill him. 

5. Hitler may commit suicide; - Hitler has often 

M ill II .n il I III r . ■■ I M l IP I.. Itll. ^1. 11 ^ > H .ll.*! ■ 

vowed that he would commit suicide if his plans 
miscarried; but if he chooses this course he will do 
it at the last moment and in the most dramatic possible 
manner* . He will retreat, let us say, to the impregnable 
little fortress he has built for himself on the top 

of the moiwtain beyond the Berghof (Berchtesgaden) • 

/■ ■ . ■ ■ • 

There alone he will> wait urftil troops come to take ' 
him prisoner* Ais a: clima-jc he will blow up the moun- 
tain and himself with' dynamite, or make a fvineral 

- 226 - 


pyre of his retreat and throw himself on it (a suitable 
G8tterdamerung) or kill hTmself with a silver bullet 
(as did the Emperor Christophe), or possibly throw 
himaelf off the parapet. This is not at all unlikely. 
For us it would be an und^esirable outcome* 

6. Hitler may seek refuge in a neutral country : - 
It is not likely that Hitler, concerned aa hq is with 
his immortality on .earth, would take so cowardly a 
course. But one of his followers might drug him, and 
take him in a plane boxond to Switzerland, and then 
persuade hiir that he should stay there to write his 
long-planned Bible for the Germanic folk. Since the 
heroes desertion of his people would considerably 
damage. the Legend, this outcome would be much better 
that either 3 or 4. . 

?• Hitler may dle i -There is no reason to _ 
believe that Hitler will die of natural causes in the 
next three or four years; but he might poison himself 
and have it announced that he had died of cancer of the 
stomach, or some other incurable illness. This out- 
come would be natural.. 

&m Hitler may be seized by th^ military command 
or by a revolutionary faction in Germany before the 
end of the war and immured in some j>rison fortress. 


This event is -diffioulfe to envisage from, what we 
surmize and have been told of the popularily of the 
man and the protection afforded him, but if it were 
to transpire, it would put an ignominious end to 
the. myth or the invincible leader and eventually 
deliver him into our hands . 

9. Hitler may fall into our hands before or 
after the Germans have surrendered:^ - This would be 
the next most desirable outcome after 8 but is 
perhaps the least likely* 


Predictions of Hitler's Behav ior in the Coming Futiire 

I I ■> I ■ III! I II I . I n. I II I 1 r I 

(See Section I, Part B) 


Suggestions for the Treatment of Hltl^er > 
Now - and After Germany > s: Surrender ; . / 

(See Section I, Part C) 

Secition VI 

Suggestions for the Treatment of Germany 
(See' Section' I,' Part D)